Nice High Calorie photos

Posted by admin On March - 15 - 2012Comments Off

A few nice high calorie images I establish:

Dagstuhl 2008-01-30 – 028
high calorie

Image by Nic’s events
Wednesday at Dagstuhl is traditionally half day, with a nice hike in the countryside on offer after lunch. That gives us a chance to burn of a tiny part of all the fantastic calories we’ve been consuming, and link of fine hours out in the world.

========

While I’m at Dagstuhl this year I’m going to try (amidst all the "real" work) to capture something of what the workshop is like and, more generally, what it is to do (computer) science. This is hard because it’s not showy high-action bull-riding kind of work, but it’s valuable, significant work and deserves to be documented. I’m just going to have work harder at it.

I’m also doubtless going to take more people pictures than I would be naturally inclined to. If anyone finds themself in a photo here and objects, let me know and I’d be pleased to take out it.

Dagstuhl 2008-01-30 – 035
high calorie

Image by Nic’s events
Wednesday at Dagstuhl is traditionally half day, with a nice hike in the countryside on offer after lunch. That gives us a chance to burn of a tiny part of all the fantastic calories we’ve been consuming, and link of fine hours out in the world.

========

While I’m at Dagstuhl this year I’m going to try (amidst all the "real" work) to capture something of what the workshop is like and, more generally, what it is to do (computer) science. This is hard because it’s not showy high-action bull-riding kind of work, but it’s valuable, significant work and deserves to be documented. I’m just going to have work harder at it.

I’m also doubtless going to take more people pictures than I would be naturally inclined to. If anyone finds themself in a photo here and objects, let me know and I’d be pleased to take out it.





Nice High Calorie photos

Posted by admin On March - 15 - 2012Comments Off

Check out these high calorie images:

Dagstuhl 2008-01-30 – 028
high calorie

Image by Nic’s events
Wednesday at Dagstuhl is traditionally half day, with a nice hike in the countryside on offer after lunch. That gives us a chance to burn of a tiny part of all the fantastic calories we’ve been consuming, and link of fine hours out in the world.

========

While I’m at Dagstuhl this year I’m going to try (amidst all the "real" work) to capture something of what the workshop is like and, more generally, what it is to do (computer) science. This is hard because it’s not showy high-action bull-riding kind of work, but it’s valuable, significant work and deserves to be documented. I’m just going to have work harder at it.

I’m also doubtless going to take more people pictures than I would be naturally inclined to. If anyone finds themself in a photo here and objects, let me know and I’d be pleased to take out it.

Dagstuhl 2008-01-30 – 035
high calorie

Image by Nic’s events
Wednesday at Dagstuhl is traditionally half day, with a nice hike in the countryside on offer after lunch. That gives us a chance to burn of a tiny part of all the fantastic calories we’ve been consuming, and link of fine hours out in the world.

========

While I’m at Dagstuhl this year I’m going to try (amidst all the "real" work) to capture something of what the workshop is like and, more generally, what it is to do (computer) science. This is hard because it’s not showy high-action bull-riding kind of work, but it’s valuable, significant work and deserves to be documented. I’m just going to have work harder at it.

I’m also doubtless going to take more people pictures than I would be naturally inclined to. If anyone finds themself in a photo here and objects, let me know and I’d be pleased to take out it.





Nice Healthy Foods photos

Posted by admin On March - 14 - 2012Comments Off

Check out these healthful foods images:

Camp FRESH 2011
healthy foods

Image by Christiana Care
Anthony Graves eats all his carrots.

But only a few months ago, the 13-year-ancient from New Castle filled up on junk food.

“I used to eat chips, cupcakes and soda,” he says. “Now I eat carrots, broccoli and tomatoes.”

Anthony is enrolled in Camp FRESH, fleeting for "fresh assets everyone should have," founded in 2007 by Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health, part of the Department of Family and Community Medicine. The nine-week program educates youth, ages 13-18, on nourishment and encourages them to eat healthful foods, while being aware that their food environment could make it hard to do so.

Camp FRESH also facility with the Delaware Center for Horticulture to educate youths on how people in urban communities can grow their own yield.

On a recent afternoon, Anthony and other campers questioned people in Rodney Square to take the 2011 Community Food Access Survey to gauge the eating habits of people in the city of Wilmington and assess their attitudes on accessibility to healthful foods. They questioned regulars what kinds of food they eat, where they buy groceries and how much they exercise.

Results from the first survey, administered in 2007, establish that a lack of access to nutritious foods was a serious obstacle to healthful eating habits. Since then, two new supermarkets have opened—ShopRite on Market Street in Wilmington and Food Lion on Governor Printz Boulevard in Edgemoor.

The latest results, to be compiled in the fall, will help to identify continuing barriers in urban communities to eating nutritious, low-stout foods and working out.

Richard Johnson of Bear, a school disciplinarian who took the survey, told Anthony that he has agreed up red meat and fried foods and eats lots of fruits and vegetables. He thinks Camp FRESH will have a lasting, positive impact on the youths.

“Working in schools, I see that obesity is a serious problem with kids,” he says. “Christiana Care is doing a very excellent business in teaching kids about nourishment.”

Indeed, Delawareans are being paid fatter, according to a recent study by the Trust for America’s Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The crash says 28 percent of adults in the First State are obese, certain as weighing at least 20 percent more than normal. Among family, 33.2 percent are overweight or obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control.

Campers come primarily from Wilmington, where corner supplies carry small fresh yield and supermarkets are not readily accessible.

“We tell kids that quick food might go excellent—but it is not excellent for you,” says Christopher C. Moore, healthful lifestyle coordinator at Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health. “We know that if agreed the right tools and information, the Camp FRESH youth have the ability to affect a lot of positive change.”

Over the years, more than 250 teens have participated in the program. Many say they are learning excellent habits that will last a lifetime.

“On the first day, I stopped drinking soda and started drinking water,” says Dkwan Brown, 14, of Wilmington. “Now I eat collard greens and salad. Whatever business that looks healthful, I will try.”

Instead of fried chicken, 13-year-ancient Aionna Williams of Wilmington questions her mother to make baked chicken. She and her mom stock up on veggies at ShopRite, Walmart and Target, as well as the Camp FRESH farmer’s market.

“The corner store is convenient but they don’t have healthful foods, only chips and stuff,” she says.

As for Anthony, he has lost 5 pounds and feels more energetic.

“I can tell that eating healthful foods is excellent for me,” he says. “That is why I want to get other people on board.”

Camp FRESH 2011
healthy foods

Image by Christiana Care
Anthony Graves eats all his carrots.

But only a few months ago, the 13-year-ancient from New Castle filled up on junk food.

“I used to eat chips, cupcakes and soda,” he says. “Now I eat carrots, broccoli and tomatoes.”

Anthony is enrolled in Camp FRESH, fleeting for "fresh assets everyone should have," founded in 2007 by Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health, part of the Department of Family and Community Medicine. The nine-week program educates youth, ages 13-18, on nourishment and encourages them to eat healthful foods, while being aware that their food environment could make it hard to do so.

Camp FRESH also facility with the Delaware Center for Horticulture to educate youths on how people in urban communities can grow their own yield.

On a recent afternoon, Anthony and other campers questioned people in Rodney Square to take the 2011 Community Food Access Survey to gauge the eating habits of people in the city of Wilmington and assess their attitudes on accessibility to healthful foods. They questioned regulars what kinds of food they eat, where they buy groceries and how much they exercise.

Results from the first survey, administered in 2007, establish that a lack of access to nutritious foods was a serious obstacle to healthful eating habits. Since then, two new supermarkets have opened—ShopRite on Market Street in Wilmington and Food Lion on Governor Printz Boulevard in Edgemoor.

The latest results, to be compiled in the fall, will help to identify continuing barriers in urban communities to eating nutritious, low-stout foods and working out.

Richard Johnson of Bear, a school disciplinarian who took the survey, told Anthony that he has agreed up red meat and fried foods and eats lots of fruits and vegetables. He thinks Camp FRESH will have a lasting, positive impact on the youths.

“Working in schools, I see that obesity is a serious problem with kids,” he says. “Christiana Care is doing a very excellent business in teaching kids about nourishment.”

Indeed, Delawareans are being paid fatter, according to a recent study by the Trust for America’s Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The crash says 28 percent of adults in the First State are obese, certain as weighing at least 20 percent more than normal. Among family, 33.2 percent are overweight or obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control.

Campers come primarily from Wilmington, where corner supplies carry small fresh yield and supermarkets are not readily accessible.

“We tell kids that quick food might go excellent—but it is not excellent for you,” says Christopher C. Moore, healthful lifestyle coordinator at Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health. “We know that if agreed the right tools and information, the Camp FRESH youth have the ability to affect a lot of positive change.”

Over the years, more than 250 teens have participated in the program. Many say they are learning excellent habits that will last a lifetime.

“On the first day, I stopped drinking soda and started drinking water,” says Dkwan Brown, 14, of Wilmington. “Now I eat collard greens and salad. Whatever business that looks healthful, I will try.”

Instead of fried chicken, 13-year-ancient Aionna Williams of Wilmington questions her mother to make baked chicken. She and her mom stock up on veggies at ShopRite, Walmart and Target, as well as the Camp FRESH farmer’s market.

“The corner store is convenient but they don’t have healthful foods, only chips and stuff,” she says.

As for Anthony, he has lost 5 pounds and feels more energetic.

“I can tell that eating healthful foods is excellent for me,” he says. “That is why I want to get other people on board.”





Nice High Calorie photos

Posted by admin On March - 14 - 2012Comments Off

Check out these high calorie images:

Dagstuhl 2008-01-30 – 028
high calorie

Image by Nic’s events
Wednesday at Dagstuhl is traditionally half day, with a nice hike in the countryside on offer after lunch. That gives us a chance to burn of a tiny part of all the fantastic calories we’ve been consuming, and link of fine hours out in the world.

========

While I’m at Dagstuhl this year I’m going to try (amidst all the "real" work) to capture something of what the workshop is like and, more generally, what it is to do (computer) science. This is hard because it’s not showy high-action bull-riding kind of work, but it’s valuable, significant work and deserves to be documented. I’m just going to have work harder at it.

I’m also doubtless going to take more people pictures than I would be naturally inclined to. If anyone finds themself in a photo here and objects, let me know and I’d be pleased to take out it.

Dagstuhl 2008-01-30 – 035
high calorie

Image by Nic’s events
Wednesday at Dagstuhl is traditionally half day, with a nice hike in the countryside on offer after lunch. That gives us a chance to burn of a tiny part of all the fantastic calories we’ve been consuming, and link of fine hours out in the world.

========

While I’m at Dagstuhl this year I’m going to try (amidst all the "real" work) to capture something of what the workshop is like and, more generally, what it is to do (computer) science. This is hard because it’s not showy high-action bull-riding kind of work, but it’s valuable, significant work and deserves to be documented. I’m just going to have work harder at it.

I’m also doubtless going to take more people pictures than I would be naturally inclined to. If anyone finds themself in a photo here and objects, let me know and I’d be pleased to take out it.





Chocolate Bark Recipe by Swiss Maid Fudge

Posted by Jason Schuller On March - 13 - 2012Comments Off

http://www.youtube.com/v/dWkO8C6bfis?version=3&f=videos&app=youtube_gdata Jane Heller from Swiss Maid Fudge on Fox6 shows us how to make some Chocolate Bark – a splendid holiday treats! Best business about it? You can make Chocolate Bark on any occasion! www.swissmaidfudge.com Splendid Valentine chocolate gift thoughts! Everything from valentine candy gifts to valentine caramel chocolate apples, and SO much more!

View the original here:
Chocolate Bark Recipe by Swiss Maid Fudge





Nice Healthy Foods photos

Posted by admin On March - 13 - 2012Comments Off

Check out these healthful foods images:

Camp FRESH 2011
healthy foods

Image by Christiana Care
Anthony Graves eats all his carrots.

But only a few months ago, the 13-year-ancient from New Castle filled up on junk food.

“I used to eat chips, cupcakes and soda,” he says. “Now I eat carrots, broccoli and tomatoes.”

Anthony is enrolled in Camp FRESH, fleeting for "fresh assets everyone should have," founded in 2007 by Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health, part of the Department of Family and Community Medicine. The nine-week program educates youth, ages 13-18, on nourishment and encourages them to eat healthful foods, while being aware that their food environment could make it hard to do so.

Camp FRESH also facility with the Delaware Center for Horticulture to educate youths on how people in urban communities can grow their own yield.

On a recent afternoon, Anthony and other campers questioned people in Rodney Square to take the 2011 Community Food Access Survey to gauge the eating habits of people in the city of Wilmington and assess their attitudes on accessibility to healthful foods. They questioned regulars what kinds of food they eat, where they buy groceries and how much they exercise.

Results from the first survey, administered in 2007, establish that a lack of access to nutritious foods was a serious obstacle to healthful eating habits. Since then, two new supermarkets have opened—ShopRite on Market Street in Wilmington and Food Lion on Governor Printz Boulevard in Edgemoor.

The latest results, to be compiled in the fall, will help to identify continuing barriers in urban communities to eating nutritious, low-stout foods and working out.

Richard Johnson of Bear, a school disciplinarian who took the survey, told Anthony that he has agreed up red meat and fried foods and eats lots of fruits and vegetables. He thinks Camp FRESH will have a lasting, positive impact on the youths.

“Working in schools, I see that obesity is a serious problem with kids,” he says. “Christiana Care is doing a very excellent business in teaching kids about nourishment.”

Indeed, Delawareans are being paid fatter, according to a recent study by the Trust for America’s Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The crash says 28 percent of adults in the First State are obese, certain as weighing at least 20 percent more than normal. Among family, 33.2 percent are overweight or obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control.

Campers come primarily from Wilmington, where corner supplies carry small fresh yield and supermarkets are not readily accessible.

“We tell kids that quick food might go excellent—but it is not excellent for you,” says Christopher C. Moore, healthful lifestyle coordinator at Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health. “We know that if agreed the right tools and information, the Camp FRESH youth have the ability to affect a lot of positive change.”

Over the years, more than 250 teens have participated in the program. Many say they are learning excellent habits that will last a lifetime.

“On the first day, I stopped drinking soda and started drinking water,” says Dkwan Brown, 14, of Wilmington. “Now I eat collard greens and salad. Whatever business that looks healthful, I will try.”

Instead of fried chicken, 13-year-ancient Aionna Williams of Wilmington questions her mother to make baked chicken. She and her mom stock up on veggies at ShopRite, Walmart and Target, as well as the Camp FRESH farmer’s market.

“The corner store is convenient but they don’t have healthful foods, only chips and stuff,” she says.

As for Anthony, he has lost 5 pounds and feels more energetic.

“I can tell that eating healthful foods is excellent for me,” he says. “That is why I want to get other people on board.”

Camp FRESH 2011
healthy foods

Image by Christiana Care
Anthony Graves eats all his carrots.

But only a few months ago, the 13-year-ancient from New Castle filled up on junk food.

“I used to eat chips, cupcakes and soda,” he says. “Now I eat carrots, broccoli and tomatoes.”

Anthony is enrolled in Camp FRESH, fleeting for "fresh assets everyone should have," founded in 2007 by Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health, part of the Department of Family and Community Medicine. The nine-week program educates youth, ages 13-18, on nourishment and encourages them to eat healthful foods, while being aware that their food environment could make it hard to do so.

Camp FRESH also facility with the Delaware Center for Horticulture to educate youths on how people in urban communities can grow their own yield.

On a recent afternoon, Anthony and other campers questioned people in Rodney Square to take the 2011 Community Food Access Survey to gauge the eating habits of people in the city of Wilmington and assess their attitudes on accessibility to healthful foods. They questioned regulars what kinds of food they eat, where they buy groceries and how much they exercise.

Results from the first survey, administered in 2007, establish that a lack of access to nutritious foods was a serious obstacle to healthful eating habits. Since then, two new supermarkets have opened—ShopRite on Market Street in Wilmington and Food Lion on Governor Printz Boulevard in Edgemoor.

The latest results, to be compiled in the fall, will help to identify continuing barriers in urban communities to eating nutritious, low-stout foods and working out.

Richard Johnson of Bear, a school disciplinarian who took the survey, told Anthony that he has agreed up red meat and fried foods and eats lots of fruits and vegetables. He thinks Camp FRESH will have a lasting, positive impact on the youths.

“Working in schools, I see that obesity is a serious problem with kids,” he says. “Christiana Care is doing a very excellent business in teaching kids about nourishment.”

Indeed, Delawareans are being paid fatter, according to a recent study by the Trust for America’s Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The crash says 28 percent of adults in the First State are obese, certain as weighing at least 20 percent more than normal. Among family, 33.2 percent are overweight or obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control.

Campers come primarily from Wilmington, where corner supplies carry small fresh yield and supermarkets are not readily accessible.

“We tell kids that quick food might go excellent—but it is not excellent for you,” says Christopher C. Moore, healthful lifestyle coordinator at Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health. “We know that if agreed the right tools and information, the Camp FRESH youth have the ability to affect a lot of positive change.”

Over the years, more than 250 teens have participated in the program. Many say they are learning excellent habits that will last a lifetime.

“On the first day, I stopped drinking soda and started drinking water,” says Dkwan Brown, 14, of Wilmington. “Now I eat collard greens and salad. Whatever business that looks healthful, I will try.”

Instead of fried chicken, 13-year-ancient Aionna Williams of Wilmington questions her mother to make baked chicken. She and her mom stock up on veggies at ShopRite, Walmart and Target, as well as the Camp FRESH farmer’s market.

“The corner store is convenient but they don’t have healthful foods, only chips and stuff,” she says.

As for Anthony, he has lost 5 pounds and feels more energetic.

“I can tell that eating healthful foods is excellent for me,” he says. “That is why I want to get other people on board.”





Nice High Calorie photos

Posted by admin On March - 8 - 2012Comments Off

Check out these high calorie images:

Immature fruits of Queen of Fruits, Garcinia mangostana…Những trái Măng Cụt non …
high calorie

Image by Vietnam Plants / Cây cỏ Vietnam
Chụp hình ở huyện Củ Chi, thành phố Hồ chí Minh, miền Nam Vietnam.

Taken in Củ Chi district, Hồ chí Minh city, South Vietnam.

Vietnamese named : Măng Cụt
Common names : Queen of Fruits ,
Scientist name : Garcinia mangostana L.
Synonyms :
Family : Clusiaceae . Họ Bứa
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Genus:Garcinia
Species:G. mangostana

Links :

**** tvvn.org/forum/showwiki.php?title=Chapter:M%C4%83ng_C%E1%…

Giá Trị Dinh Dưỡng và Dược Tính Của Măng Cụt

Dược Sĩ Trần Việt Hưng

Măng cụt, một trái cây nhiệt đới đã được giới tiêu-thụ Âu-Mỹ đánh giá là một trong những trái cây ngon nhất, Jacobus Bontius đã gọi măng cụt là ‘Hoàng hậu của các loại trái cây (Queen of fruits)’, mà nếu có dịp gặp được quả tươi thì hãy thử ngay, đừng chần chừ. Bên cạnh gíá trị dinh dưỡng cao, măng cụt còn là một nguồn cung cấp dược liệu để trị bệnh khá độc đáo, những nghiên cứu mới đã nhằm vào khả năng trị ung thư của cây.

I/ Tên khoa học và các tên thông thường:

Garcinia mangostana thuộc họ thực vật Clusiaceae (Guttifereae)

Các tên gọi khác: Mangosteen (Anh-Mỹ), Mangoustan (Pháp), Sơn Trúc Tử (Trung Hoa), Mangkhut (Thái lan)

Giống Garcinia được đặt tên để ghi nhớ nhà thực vật học Laurence Garcia, người đã sưu tập các mẫu cây cỏ và sống tại Ấn Độ vào thế kỷ 18. Mangostana và tên Anh ngữ mangosteen đều phát xuất từ tên Mã lai của cây: mangustan.

II/ Đặc tính thực vật:

Măng cụt có nguồn gốc từ Mã Lai và Indonesia, được trồng từ hàng chục thế kỷ, cây đã được Thuyền Trưởng Cook mô tả khá chi tiết từ năm 1770, và được đưa đến Sri Lanka vào năm 1800, được trồng tại Anh trong các nhà kiếng (green household) từ 1855, sau đó đưa đến West Indies từ giữa thế kỷ 19. Đây là một loại cây đòi hỏi điều kiện thổ nhưỡng khắt khe cần khí hậu nóng và ẩm, cây tăng trưởng rất chậm, sau 2-3 năm cây chỉ cao đến đầu gối, chỉ bắt đầu cho quả sau 10-15 năm.. Cây đã được các nhà truyền giáo du nhập vào Nam Việt Nam từ lâu, trồng nhiều nhất tại Lái Thiêu, Thủ Dầu Một. Việt Nam đã có lúc là nơi có những vườn măng cụt lớn nhất thế giới, với những vườn rộng hàng chục mẫu, có hàng ngàn cây, mỗi cây cho được từ 700 đến 900 quả. Cây hiện được trồng nhiều tại Thái Lan, Kampuchea, Myanmar (Miến điện), Sri Lanka và Philippines.

Hiện có khoảng 100 loài khác nhau được nuôi trồng.

Măng cụt thuộc loại cây to, trung bình 7-12 m nhưng có thể cao đến 20- 25 m, thân có vỏ màu nâu đen xậm, có nhựa (resin) màu vàng. Lá dày và cứng, bóng, mọc đối, mặt trên của lá có màu xậm hơn mặt dưới, hình thuôn dài 15-25 cm, rộng 6-11 cm, cuống dài 1.2-2.5 cm. Hoa đa tính thường là hoa cái và hoa lưỡng tính. Hoa mọc đơn độc hay từng đôi. Hoa loại lưỡng tính màu trắng hay hồng nhạt, có 4 lá đài và 4 cánh hoa, có 16-17 nhị và bầu noãn có 5-8 ô. Quả hình cầu tròn, đường kính chừng 4-7 cm, có mang đài hoa còn tồn tại; vỏ quả màu đỏ nâu, dai và xốp. Quả chứa 5-8 hạt: quanh hạt có lớp áo bọc màu trắng có vị ngọt, thơm và khá ngon. Cây trổ hoa vào tháng 2-5, ra quả trong các tháng 5-8.
(giống Garcinia còn gồm một số cây tương cận, đa số mọc trong vùng Đông Ấn = West Indies, trong đó có thể kể Garcinia cambogia hay Bứa, Garcinia cowa cung cấp quả Cowa-Mangosteen lớn hơn và có khía màu vàng apricot, vị chua; Garcinia indica hay Cocum = Conca cho quả chua, áo hạt màu tím, dùng làm giấm, hạt ép lấy dầu.)

III/ Thành phần dinh dưỡng:

100 gram phần ăn được (quả tươi) chứa
- Calories 60-63
- Chất đạm 0.5-0.60 g
- Chất béo 0.1-0.60 g
- Chất carbohydrates 10-14.7 g
- Chất sơ 5.0-5.10 g
- Calcium 0.01- 8 mg
- Sắt 0.20- 0.80 mg
- Phosphorus 0.02- 12.0 mg
- Thiamine (B1) 0.03 mg
- Vitamin C 1-2 mg
(ngoài ra còn có Potassium, Niacin…)

Quả măng cụt thường được ăn tươi, khía quanh quả, bẻ đôi theo đường khía, để ăn các múi trắng, bỏ hột trong, có vị ngọt, mọng nước. Tại đảo Sulu có giống măng cụt vị hơi chua, được dùng làm mứt trộn với đường thô. Tại Mã Lai, quả chưa chín hẳn được dùng làm mứt halwa manggis.

Măng cụt rất mau hư, có thể giữ 2-3 ngày ở nhiệt độ bình thường, khoảng 1 tuần trong tủ lạnh nhưng không thể giữ trong tủ đông lạnh (freezer)

IV/ Thành phần hóa học:

Thành phần hóa học thay đổi tùy theo bộ phận:
- Lá chứa nhiều xanthones loại di và tri hydroxy-methoxy (methyl, butyl…)
- Gỗ thân có maclurin, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy xanthone và xanthone-glucosides.
- Vỏ quả: có chrysanthemin, tannins (7-13 %), các hợp chất đắng loại xanthones như mangostin (gồm cả 3-isomangostin, 3-isomangostin hydrate, 1-iso mangostin, alpha và beta mangostin, gamma-mangostin, nor-mangostin…), garcinones A, B, C; kolanone; các xanthones như BR-xanthone-A, -B.
- Áo hạt: calabaxanthone, demethyl calabaxanthone, mangostin.
- Nhựa: chứa xanthones có những hoạt tính kháng sinh, chống sưng và kháng nấm, đặc biệt là một hợp chất loại biphenyl geranylated (Natural Products Tháng 4-2005)

V/ Dược tính:

1- Y dược dân gian:

- Tại Thái Lan: Vỏ măng cụt khô được dùng để trị tiêu chảy, chữa vết thương. Để trị tiêu chảy, vỏ khô được nấu với nước vôi, chắt lấy nước để uống.

- Tại Việt Nam: Vỏ quả được sắc dùng uống để trị tiêu chảy, kiết lỵ; Nước sắc được dùng để rửa vệ sinh phụ nữ.

- Tại Ấn Độ: Cây được gọi là mangustan, vỏ để trị tiêu chảy. Lá nấu để xúc miệng, trị lở trong miệng.

2- Các nghiên cứu dược học về măng cụt: (theo Thai Medicinal Plants)

- Tác dụng ức nén hệ thần kinh trung ương: Mangostin, một hợp chất loại xanthone và các chất chuyển hóa tạo ra nhưng phản ứng ức chế thần kinh trung ương gây các triệu chứng như sụp mi mắt (ptosis), dịu đau, giảm hoạt động của thần kinh vận động, tăng cường hoạt tính gây ngủ và gây mê của pentobarbital.

- Tác dụng trên hệ tim mạch: Mangostin-3, 6-di-O-glucoside tạo ra các hiệu ứng rõ rệt trên hệ tim mạch của ếch và chó: Gây kích thích cơ tim, tăng huyết áp nơi thú vật thử nghiệm. Cả hai tác dụng này đều bị ức chế một phần bởi propranolol.

- Tác dụng chống sưng, viêm: Mangostin, 1-isomanfostin và mangos tin triacetate có những hoạt tính chống sưng khi dùng chích qua màng phúc mô hay khi cho uống nơi chuột bị gây phù chân bằng carrageenan, hay bằng cấy cục bông gòn dưới da..Các chất này không có hiệu ứng ổn định màng tế bào. Các hoạt tính chống viêm này được giải thích là do ở ức chế hoạt động của men IKK (inhibitor kappaB kinase) do đó ngăn được sự chuyển mã (transcription) gen COX-2 và gây giảm bài tiết PGE(2) là tác nhân chính trong tiến trình gây sưng. (Molecular Pharmacology Tháng 9-2004). Gamma-mangostin, một xanthone loại tetraoxygenated diprenylated, có hoạt tính ức chế tương tranh hoạt động của cả COX-1 lẫn COX-2 ở liều IC50=0.8 và 2 micro M (Biochemistry Pharmacology Tháng 1/2002)

- Tác dụng chống ung loét bao tử: Mangostin có hoạt tính chống ung loét khi thử trên chuột.

- Hoạt tính kháng sinh: Có nhiều nghiên cứu ghi nhận khả năng kháng sinh của vỏ măng cụt. Các vi khuẩn thử nghiệm thuộc nhóm gây kiết lỵ như shigella dysenteriae, sh. flexneri, sh. sonnei và sh. boydii hoặc thuộc nhóm gây tiêu chảy như escherichia coli, streptococcus feacalis, vibryo cholerae. Hỗn hợp thô 5 loại xanthones, trích từ vỏ măng cụt (mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, gartanin và 8-deoxygartanin) có tác dụng ức chế sự tăng trưởng của s.aureus.

Mangostin ức chế S. aureus (cả chủng bình thường lẫn chủng kháng penicillin ở nồng độ tối thiểu (MIC=Minimal inhibitory concentration là 7.8 mg/ml. Alpha, beta-mangostin và Garcinone B có tác dụng ức chế sự tăng trưởng của Mycobacterium tuberculosis ở nồng độ MIC= 6.25 mcg/ml. Dịch chiết vỏ măng cụt bằng ethanol có tiềm năng ức chế được protease của HIV-1. Hoạt tính này được xác định là do mangostin (IC50=5.12 +/- 0.41 microM) và gamma-mangostin (IC50= 4.81 +/- 0.32 microM) (Planta Medica Tháng 8-1996)

- Hoạt tính kháng nấm: Mangostin kháng được trichophyton menta grophytes, microsporum gypseum và epidermophyton floccosum ở nồng độ 1 mg/ml nhưng không tác dụng trên candida albicans. Nghiên cứu tại Trung Tâm Nghiên Cứu Nông Nghiệp Madras (Ấn độ) ghi nhận xanthones trích từ vỏ măng cụt có hoạt tính chống các loại nấm gây bệnh fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum, alternaria tenuis và dreschlera oryzae.

- Tác dụng diệt cá: Dịch chiết bằng nước vỏ măng cụt cho thấy có tác dụng diệt cá rô phi (Tilapia = Oreochromis niloticus) ở nồng độ 1,000 ppm.

- Hoạt tính chống ung thư: Có khá nhiều nghiên cứu về tác dụng của các xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt trên các tế bào ung thư:

- Nghiên cứu tại Veterans General Hospital, Đài Bắc (Trung Hoa Dân quốc) ghi nhận Garcinone E, một chất chuyển hóa xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt có hoạt tính diệt bào trên tế bào ung thư gan loại hepatocellular carcinomas, ung thư ruột và ung thư phổi (Planta Medica Số 11-2002).

- Nghiên cứu tại Bộ môn Sinh học về Dược Phân tử tại ĐH Dược Tohoku (Nhật) ghi nhận các xanthones trong vỏ măng cụt một số hoạt tính gây apoptosis (tiến trình tế bào được mã hóa để tự hủy diệt) trên các tế bào ung thư loại pheochromocytoma nơi chuột: Alpha-mangostin được cho là có khả năng ức chế được men Ca(2+)-ATPase là men gây ra apoptosis qua các lộ trình nơi mitochondria (Journal of Pharmacology Sciences (Tháng 5/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Bộ Môn Vi trùng Học, ĐH Dược Khoa, Viện ĐH Mahidol (Bangkok-Thai Lan) cho thấy dịch chiết vỏ măng cụt bằng methanol có hoạt tính khá mạnh ngăn chặn được sự phát triển, có tiềm lực oxy hóa mạnh, và gây apoptosis nơi tế bào ung thư vú của người (loại SKBR3) (Jourmnal of Ethnopharmacology Tháng 1/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Trường Y Khoa, ĐH Ryukyus (Okinawa-Nhật) cho thấy alpha-mangostin thô có tiềm lực ức chế được sự tăng trưởng, phát triển của các tế bào ung thư ruột loại ‘preneoplastic’ nơi chuột thử nghiệm (Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Tháng 10/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Viện Kỹ thuật Sinh Học Gifu (Nhật) ghi nhận càc xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt, nhất là alpha-mangostin, có tác dụng ức chế được sự tăng trưởng của tế bào ung thư máu nơi người (dòng tế bào ung thư HL60). Liều ức chế hoàn toàn là 10 microM (Journal of Natural Products Tháng 8/2003)

Tài liệu sử dụng:
•Thai Medicinal Plants (Norman Farnsworth & Nunthavan Buniapra phatsara).
•Từ điển Cây thuốc Việ Nam (Võ văn Chi)
•Whole Foods Companion (Dianne Onstad)
•The Oxford Companion to Food (Alain Davidson)

**** QUY TRÌNH, KỶ THUẬT TRỒNG VÀ CHĂM SÓC VÀ THU HOẠCH CÂY MĂNG CỤT
www.skhcn.vinhlong.gov.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=143&ctl=…

**** KỶ THUẬT TRỒNG CÂY MĂNG CỤT :
hoinongdan.cantho.gov.vn/?tabid=138&ndid=52&key=

**** www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn/dongy/show_target.plx?url=/thuocdongy/…

___________________________________________________________

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/mangosteen.html

One of the most praised of tropical fruits, and certainly the most esteemed fruit in the family Guttiferae, the mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., is nearly universally known or heard of by this name. There are copious variations in nomenclature: among Spanish-speaking people, it is called mangostan; to the French, it is mangostanier, mangoustanier, mangouste or mangostier; in Portuguese, it is mangostao, mangosta or mangusta; in Dutch, it is manggis or manggistan; in Vietnamese, mang cut; in Malaya, it may be referred to in any of these languages or by the local terms, mesetor, semetah, or sementah; in the Philippines, it is mangis or mangostan. Throughout the Malay Archipelago, there are many different spellings of names similar to most of the above.

Plate XLI: MANGOSTEEN, Garcinia mangostana—Painted by Dr. M.J. Dijkman Description

The mangosteen tree is very slow-growing, erect, with a pyramidal crown; attains 20 to 82 ft (6-25 m) in height, has dark-brown or nearly black, flaking bark, the inner bark containing much yellow, gummy, bitter latex. The evergreen, opposite, fleeting-stalked leaves are ovate-oblong or elliptic, leathery and thick, dark-green, slightly glossy above, yellowish-green and dull beneath; 3 1/2 to 10 in (9-25 cm) long, 1 3/4 to 4 in (4.5-10 cm) wide, with conspicuous, pale midrib. New leaves are rosy. plants, 1 1/2 to 2 in (4-5 cm) wide and fleshy, may be male or hermaphrodite on the same tree. The ex- are in clusters of 3-9 at the branch tips; there are 4 sepals and 4 ovate, thick, fleshy petals, green with red spots on the outside, yellowish-red inside, and many stamens though the aborted anthers bear no pollen. The hermaphrodite are borne singly or in pairs at the tips of childish branchlets; their petals may be yellowish-green edged with red or mostly red, and are quickly shed.

The fruit, capped by the prominent calyx at the stem end and with 4 to 8 triangular, flat bits and pieces of the stigma in a rosette at the apex, is round, dark-purple to red-purple and smooth externally; 1 1/3 to 3 in (3.4-7.5 cm) in diameter. The rind is 1/4 to 3/8 in (6-10 mm) thick, red in cross-section, purplish-white on the inside. It contains bitter yellow latex and a purple, staining juice. There are 4 to 8 triangular segments of snow-white, juicy, soft flesh (really the arils of the seeds). The fruit may be seedless or have 1 to 5 fully developed seeds, ovoid-oblong, to some extent flattened, 1 in (2.5 cm) long and 5/8 in (1.6 cm) wide, that cling to the flesh. The flesh is slightly acid and mild to distinctly acid in flavor and is acclaimed as exquisitely luscious and tasty.

Origin and Distribution

The place of origin of the mangosteen is unknown but is believed to be the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas; still, there are wild trees in the forests of Kemaman, Malaya. Corner suggests that the tree may have been first domesticated in Thailand, or Burma. It is much cultivated in Thailand–where there were 9,700 acres (4,000 ha) in 1965–also in Kampuchea, southern Vietnam and Burma, throughout Malaya and Singapore. The tree was planted in Ceylon about 1800 and in India in 1881. There it succeeds in 4 limited areas–the Nilgiri Hills, the Tinnevelly district of southern Madras, the Kanya-kumani district at the southernmost tip of the Madras peninsula, and in Kerala State in southwestern India. The tree is honestly common only in the provinces of Mindanao and Sulu (or Jolo) in the Philippines. It is rare in Queensland, where it has been tried many times since 1854, and poorly represented in tropical Africa (Zanzibar, Ghana, Gabon and Liberia). There were fruiting trees in greenhouses in England in 1855. The mangosteen was introduced into Trinidad from the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, England, between 1850 and 1860 and the first fruit was borne in 1875. It reached the Panama Canal Zone and Puerto Rico in 1903 but there are only a few trees in these areas, in Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba, and some scattered around other parts of the West Indies. The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from Java in 1906 (S.P.I. #17146). A large test block of productive trees has been maintained at the Lancetilla Experimental Rank at Tela, Honduras, for many years. Quite a few trees distributed by the United Fruit Company long ago have done well on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. In 1924, Dr. Wilson Popenoe saw the mangosteen growing at one site in Ecuador. In 1939, 15,000 seeds were distributed by the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens to many areas of tropical America. It is probable that only a relatively few seedlings survived. It is known that many die during the first year. Dr. Victor Patiño has observed flourishing mangosteen trees at the site of an ancient mining settlement in Mariquita, Colombia, in the Magdalena Valley and the fruits are sold on local markets. Dierberger Agricola Ltda., of Sao Paulo, included the mangosteen in their nursery catalog in 1949.

Despite early trials in Hawaii, the tree has not be converted into well acclimatized and is still rare in those islands. Neither has it been thriving in California. It encounters very unfavorable soil and climate in Florida. Some plants have been grown for a time in containers in greenhouses. One tree in a very protected coastal location and special soil lived to yield a single fruit and then succumbed to winter cold.

Despite the oft-repeated Ancient World enthusiasm for this fruit, it is not always viewed as worth the vex to yield. In Jamaica, it is regarded as nice but overrated; not comparable to a excellent field-ripe pineapple or a choice mango.

Varieties

According to Corner, the fruit from seedling trees is honestly uniform; only one distinct variation is known and that is in the Sulu Islands. The fruit is larger, the rind thicker than normal, and the flesh more acid; the flavor more pronounced. In North Borneo, a seemingly wild form has only 4 carpels, each containing a fully-developed seed, and this is doubtless not unique.

Climate

The mangosteen is ultra-tropical. It cannot tolerate temperatures below 40º F (4.44º C), nor above 100º F (37.78º C). Nursery seedlings are killed at 45º F (7.22º C).

It is limited in Malaya to elevations below 1,500 ft (450 m). In Madras it grows from 250 to 5,000 ft (76-1,500 m) above sea-level. Attempts to establish it north of 200 latitude have all failed.

It ordinarily requires high atmospheric humidity and an annual rainfall of at least 50 in (127 cm), and no long periods of drought. In Dominica, mangosteens growing in an area having 80 in (200 cm) of rain yearly required special care, but those in another locality with 105 in (255 cm) and soil with better moisture- holding capacity, flourished.

Soil

The tree is not adapted to limestone and does best in deep, rich organic soil, especially sandy loam or laterite. In India, the most productive specimens are on clay containing much coarse material and a small silt. Sandy alluvial soils are unsuitable and sand low in humus contributes to low yields. The tree needs excellent drainage and the water table ought to be about 6 ft (1.8 m) below ground level. But, in the Canal Zone, productive mangosteen groves have been established where it is too wet for other fruit trees–in swamps requiring drainage ditches between rows and in situations where the roots were bathed with flowing water most of the year, in spite of the fact that standing water in nursery beds will kill seedlings. The mangosteen must be privileged from strong winds and salt spray, as well as saline soil or water.

Propagation

Technically, the so-called "seeds" are not right seeds but adventitious embryos, or hypocotyl tubercles, inasmuch as there has been no sexual fertilization. When progression starts, a shoot emerges from one end of the seed and a root from the other end. But this root is fleeting-lived and is replaced by roots which develop at the base of the shoot. The process of reproduction being vegetative, there is naturally small variation in the resulting trees and their fruits. Some of the seeds are polyembryonic, producing more than one shoot. The individual nucellar embryos can be separated, if desired, before planting.

Inasmuch as the percentage of germination is directly related to the weight of the seed, only plump, fully developed seeds should be chosen for planting. Even these will lose viability in 5 days after removal from the fruit, though they are viable for 3 to 5 weeks in the fruit. Seeds packed in lightly dampened peat moss, sphagnum moss or coconut fiber in airtight containers have remained viable for 3 months. Only 22% germination has been realized in seeds packed in ground charcoal for 15 days. Soaking in water for 24 hours expedites and enhances the rate of germination. Generally, sprouting occurs in 20 to 22 days and is complete in 43 days.

Because of the long, delicate taproot and poor unencumbered root development, transplanting is notoriously hard. It must not be attempted after the plants reach 2 ft (60 cm). At that time the depth of the taproot may exceed that height. There is greater seedling survival if seeds are planted directly in the nursery row than if first grown in containers and then transplanted to the nursery. The nursery soil should be 3 ft (1 m) deep, at least. The childish plants take 2 years or more to reach a height of 12 in (30 cm), when they can be taken up with a deep ball of earth and set out. Fruiting may take place in 7 to 9 years from planting but usually not for 10 or even 20 years.

Conventional vegetative propagation of the mangosteen is hard. Various methods of grafting have failed. Cuttings and air-layers, with or without progression-promoting chemicals, usually fail to root or result in buckled, fleeting-lived plants. Inarching on different rootstocks has appeared promising at first but later incompatibility has been evident with all apart from G. xanthochymus Hook. f. (G tinctoria Dunn.) or G. lateriflora Bl., now frequently employed in the Philippines.

In Florida, approach-grafting has succeeded only by planting a seed of G. xanthochymus about 1 1/4 in (3 cm) from the base of a mangosteen seedling in a container and, when the stem of the G. xanthochymus seedling has be converted into 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, joining it onto the 3/16 to 1/4 in (5-6 mm) thick stem of the mangosteen at a point about 4 in (10 cm) above the soil. When the graft has healed, the G. xanthochymus seedling is beheaded. The mangosteen will make excellent progress having both root systems to grow on, while the G. xanthochymus rootstock will develop very small.

Culture

A spacing of 35 to 40 ft (10.7-12 m) is not compulsory. Planting is preferably done at the beginning of the rainy season. Pits 4 x 4 x 4 1/2 ft (1.2 x l.2 x l.3 m) are prepared at least 30 days in advance, enriched with organic topic and topsoil and left to weather. The childish tree is place in place very carefully so as not to injure the root and agreed a heavy watering. Partial shading with palm fronds or by other earnings should be maintained for 3 to 5 years. Indian growers give each tree regular feeding with well-rotted manure–100 to 200 lbs (45-90 kg)–and peanut meal–10 to 15 lbs (4.5-6.8 kg) whole, per year.

Some of the most fruitful mangosteen trees are growing on the banks of streams, lakes, ponds or canals where the roots are nearly constantly wet. But, dry weather just before blooming time and during flowering induces a excellent fruit-set. Where a moist planting site is not available, irrigation ditches should be dug to make it possible to maintain an adequate water supply and the trees are irrigated nearly daily during the dry season.

In Malaya and Ceylon, it is a common practice to spread a mulch of coconut husks or fronds to retain moisture. A 16-in (40-cm) mulch of grass restored trees that had begun dehydrating in Liberia. It has been suggested that small inner branches be pruned from ancient, unproductive trees to stimulate bearing. In Thailand, the tree is said to take 12 to 20 years to fruit. In Panama and Puerto Rico trees grown from large seed and agreed excellent culture have borne in six years.

Season and Harvesting

At low altitudes in Ceylon the fruit ripens from May to July; at higher elevations, in July and August or August and September. In India, there are 2 distinct fruiting seasons, one in the monsoon cycle (July-October) and another from April through June. Puerto Rican trees in full sun fruit in July and August; shaded trees, in November and December.

Cropping is irregular and the yield varies from tree to tree and from season to season. The first crop may be 200 to 300 fruits. Average yield of a full-grown tree is about 500 fruits. The yield steadily increases up to the 30th year of bearing when crops of 1,000 to 2,000 fruits may be obtained. In Madras, individual trees between the ages of 20 and 45 years have borne 2,000 to 3,000 fruits. Productivity increasingly declines thereafter, though the tree will still be fruiting at 100 years of age.

Ripeness is gauged by the full development of color and slight softening. Picking may be done when the fruits are slightly underripe but they must be fully mature (developed) or they will not ripen after picking. The fruits must be harvested by hand from ladders or by earnings of a cutting pole and not be allowable to fall.

Maintenance Quality

In dry, warm, closed storage, mangosteens can be held 20 to 25 days. Longer periods cause the outer skin to toughen and the rind to be converted into rubbery; later, the rind hardens and becomes hard to open and the flesh turns dry.

Ripe mangosteens keep well for 3 to 4 weeks in storage at 40º to 55º F (4.44º-12.78º C). Trials in India have shown that optimum conditions for cold storage are temperatures of 39º to 42º F (3.89º-5.56º C) and relative humidity of 85 to 90%, which maintain quality for 49 days. It is not compulsory that the fruits be wrapped in bandanna paper and packed 25-to-the-box in light wooden crates with excelsior padding. Fruits picked slightly green have been shipped from Burma to the United Kingdom at 50º to 55º F (10º-12.78º C). From 1927 to 1929, trial shipments were made from Java to Holland at 37.4º F (approximately 2.38º C) and the fruits kept in excellent condition for 24 days.

Mice and Diseases

Few mice have been reported. A leaf-eating caterpillar in India may perhaps be the same as that which attacks new shoots in the Philippines and which has been identified as Orgyra sp. of the tussock moth family, Lymantridae. A small ant, Myrnelachista ramulorum, in Puerto Rico, colonizes the tree, tunnels into the trunk and branches, and hurts the new progression. Mites sometimes despoil the fruits with small bites and scratches. Fully ripe fruits are attacked by monkeys, bats and rats in Asia.

In Puerto Rico, thread blight caused by the fungus, Pellicularia koleroga, is often seen on branchlets, plants and fruits of trees in shaded, humid areas. The fruits may be converted into coated with webbing and ruined. In Malaya, the fungus, Zignoella garcineae, gives rise to "canker"–tuberous growths on the branches, causing a fatal dying-back of plants, branches and eventually the entire tree. Breakdown in storage is caused by the fungi Diplodia gossypina, Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Gloeosporium sp., and Rhizopus nigricans.

A major physiological problem called "gamboge" is evidenced by the oozing of latex onto the outer surface of the fruits and on the branches during periods of heavy and continuous rains. It does not affect eating quality. Fruit-cracking may occur because of excessive absorption of moisture. In cracked fruits the flesh will be swollen and mushy. Bruising caused by the force of storms may be an valuable factor in both of these abnormalities. Fruits exposed to strong sun may also exude latex. Mangosteens produced in Honduras often have crystal-like "stones" in the flesh and they may render the fruit absolutely inedible.

Food Uses

To select the best table fruits, choose those with the highest number of stigma lobes at the apex, for these have the highest number of fleshy segments and in view of that the fewest seeds. The numbers always correspond. Mangosteens are usually eaten fresh as dessert. One need only hold the fruit with the stem-end downward, take a sharp knife and cut around the middle absolutely through the rind, and lift off the top half, which leaves the fleshy segments exposed in the colorful "cup"–the bottom half of the rind. The segments are lifted out by fork.

The fleshy segments are sometimes canned, but they are said to lose their delicate flavor in canning, especially if pasteurized for as much as 10 minutes. Tests have shown that it is best to use a 40% sirup and sterilize for only 5 minutes. The more acid fruits are best for preserving. To make jam, in Malaya, seedless segments are boiled with an equal amount of honey and a few cloves for 15 to 20 minutes and then place into glass jars. In the Philippines, a preserve is made by simply boiling the segments in brown honey, and the seeds may be included to enrich the flavor.

The seeds are sometimes eaten alone after boiling or roasting.

The rind is rich in pectin. After treatment with 6% sodium chloride to eliminate astringency, the rind is made into a purplish jelly.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Part*
Calories60-63
Moisture80.2-84.9 g
Protein0.50-0.60 g
Fat0.1-0.6 g
Whole Carbohydrates14.3-15.6 g
Whole Sugars16.42-16.82 g
(sucrose, glucose and fructose)
Fiber5.0-5.1 g
Ash0.2-0.23 g
Calcium0.01-8.0 mg
Phosphorus0.02-12.0 mg
Iron0.20-0.80 mg
Thiamine0.03 mg
Ascorbic Acid1.0-2.0 mg
*Minimum/maximum values from analyses made in the Philippines and Washington, D.C.

Phytin (an organic phosphorus compound) constitutes up to 0.68% on a dry-weight basis. The flesh amounts to 31% of the whole fruit.

Other Uses

Mangosteen twigs are used as chewsticks in Ghana. The fruit rind contains 7 to 14% catechin tannin and rosin, and is used for tanning leather in China. It also yields a black dye.

Wood: In Thailand, all non-bearing trees are felled, so the wood is available but usually only in small dimensions. It is dark-brown, heavy, nearly sinks in water, and is moderately durable. It has been used to make handles for spears, also rice pounders, and is employed in construction and cabinetwork.

Medicinal Uses: Dried fruits are shipped from Singapore to Calcutta and to China for medicinal use. The sliced and dried rind is minced and administered to overcome dysentery. Made into an ointment, it is applied on eczema and other skin disorders. The rind decoction is taken to relieve diarrhea and cystitis, gonorrhea and gleet and is applied externally as an astringent oil. A part of the rind is steeped in water overnight and the infusion agreed as a remedy for chronic diarrhea in adults and family. Filipinos use a decoction of the leaves and bark as a febrifuge and to treat thrush, diarrhea, dysentery and urinary disorders. In Malaya, an infusion of the leaves, combined with green banana and a small benzoin is applied to the wound of circumcision. A root decoction is taken to regulate menstruation. A bark extract called "amibiasine", has been marketed for the treatment of amoebic dysentery.

The rind of partially ripe fruits yields a polyhydroxy-xanthone derivative termed mangostin, also ß-mangostin. That of fully ripe fruits contains the xanthones, gartanin, 8-disoxygartanin, and normangostin. A derivative of mangostin, mangostin-e, 6-di-O-glucoside, is a central nervous logic depressant and causes a rise in blood pressure.

**** www.stuartxchange.org/Mangosteen.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_mangosteen
www.tropilab.com/gar-man.html
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18725264

Garcia mangostana , Queen of Fruits ‘s flower …Hoa Măng Cụt ….
high calorie

Image by Vietnam Plants / Cây cỏ Vietnam
Chụp hình ở huyện Củ Chi, thành phố Hồ chí Minh, miền Nam Vietnam.

Taken in Củ Chi district, Hồ chí Minh city, South Vietnam.

Vietnamese named : Măng Cụt
Common names : Queen of Fruits ,
Scientist name : Garcinia mangostana L.
Synonyms :
Family : Clusiaceae . Họ Bứa
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Genus:Garcinia
Species:G. mangostana

Links :

**** tvvn.org/forum/showwiki.php?title=Chapter:M%C4%83ng_C%E1%…

Giá Trị Dinh Dưỡng và Dược Tính Của Măng Cụt

Dược Sĩ Trần Việt Hưng

Măng cụt, một trái cây nhiệt đới đã được giới tiêu-thụ Âu-Mỹ đánh giá là một trong những trái cây ngon nhất, Jacobus Bontius đã gọi măng cụt là ‘Hoàng hậu của các loại trái cây (Queen of fruits)’, mà nếu có dịp gặp được quả tươi thì hãy thử ngay, đừng chần chừ. Bên cạnh gíá trị dinh dưỡng cao, măng cụt còn là một nguồn cung cấp dược liệu để trị bệnh khá độc đáo, những nghiên cứu mới đã nhằm vào khả năng trị ung thư của cây.

I/ Tên khoa học và các tên thông thường:

Garcinia mangostana thuộc họ thực vật Clusiaceae (Guttifereae)

Các tên gọi khác: Mangosteen (Anh-Mỹ), Mangoustan (Pháp), Sơn Trúc Tử (Trung Hoa), Mangkhut (Thái lan)

Giống Garcinia được đặt tên để ghi nhớ nhà thực vật học Laurence Garcia, người đã sưu tập các mẫu cây cỏ và sống tại Ấn Độ vào thế kỷ 18. Mangostana và tên Anh ngữ mangosteen đều phát xuất từ tên Mã lai của cây: mangustan.

II/ Đặc tính thực vật:

Măng cụt có nguồn gốc từ Mã Lai và Indonesia, được trồng từ hàng chục thế kỷ, cây đã được Thuyền Trưởng Cook mô tả khá chi tiết từ năm 1770, và được đưa đến Sri Lanka vào năm 1800, được trồng tại Anh trong các nhà kiếng (green household) từ 1855, sau đó đưa đến West Indies từ giữa thế kỷ 19. Đây là một loại cây đòi hỏi điều kiện thổ nhưỡng khắt khe cần khí hậu nóng và ẩm, cây tăng trưởng rất chậm, sau 2-3 năm cây chỉ cao đến đầu gối, chỉ bắt đầu cho quả sau 10-15 năm.. Cây đã được các nhà truyền giáo du nhập vào Nam Việt Nam từ lâu, trồng nhiều nhất tại Lái Thiêu, Thủ Dầu Một. Việt Nam đã có lúc là nơi có những vườn măng cụt lớn nhất thế giới, với những vườn rộng hàng chục mẫu, có hàng ngàn cây, mỗi cây cho được từ 700 đến 900 quả. Cây hiện được trồng nhiều tại Thái Lan, Kampuchea, Myanmar (Miến điện), Sri Lanka và Philippines.

Hiện có khoảng 100 loài khác nhau được nuôi trồng.

Măng cụt thuộc loại cây to, trung bình 7-12 m nhưng có thể cao đến 20- 25 m, thân có vỏ màu nâu đen xậm, có nhựa (resin) màu vàng. Lá dày và cứng, bóng, mọc đối, mặt trên của lá có màu xậm hơn mặt dưới, hình thuôn dài 15-25 cm, rộng 6-11 cm, cuống dài 1.2-2.5 cm. Hoa đa tính thường là hoa cái và hoa lưỡng tính. Hoa mọc đơn độc hay từng đôi. Hoa loại lưỡng tính màu trắng hay hồng nhạt, có 4 lá đài và 4 cánh hoa, có 16-17 nhị và bầu noãn có 5-8 ô. Quả hình cầu tròn, đường kính chừng 4-7 cm, có mang đài hoa còn tồn tại; vỏ quả màu đỏ nâu, dai và xốp. Quả chứa 5-8 hạt: quanh hạt có lớp áo bọc màu trắng có vị ngọt, thơm và khá ngon. Cây trổ hoa vào tháng 2-5, ra quả trong các tháng 5-8.
(giống Garcinia còn gồm một số cây tương cận, đa số mọc trong vùng Đông Ấn = West Indies, trong đó có thể kể Garcinia cambogia hay Bứa, Garcinia cowa cung cấp quả Cowa-Mangosteen lớn hơn và có khía màu vàng apricot, vị chua; Garcinia indica hay Cocum = Conca cho quả chua, áo hạt màu tím, dùng làm giấm, hạt ép lấy dầu.)

III/ Thành phần dinh dưỡng:

100 gram phần ăn được (quả tươi) chứa
- Calories 60-63
- Chất đạm 0.5-0.60 g
- Chất béo 0.1-0.60 g
- Chất carbohydrates 10-14.7 g
- Chất sơ 5.0-5.10 g
- Calcium 0.01- 8 mg
- Sắt 0.20- 0.80 mg
- Phosphorus 0.02- 12.0 mg
- Thiamine (B1) 0.03 mg
- Vitamin C 1-2 mg
(ngoài ra còn có Potassium, Niacin…)

Quả măng cụt thường được ăn tươi, khía quanh quả, bẻ đôi theo đường khía, để ăn các múi trắng, bỏ hột trong, có vị ngọt, mọng nước. Tại đảo Sulu có giống măng cụt vị hơi chua, được dùng làm mứt trộn với đường thô. Tại Mã Lai, quả chưa chín hẳn được dùng làm mứt halwa manggis.

Măng cụt rất mau hư, có thể giữ 2-3 ngày ở nhiệt độ bình thường, khoảng 1 tuần trong tủ lạnh nhưng không thể giữ trong tủ đông lạnh (freezer)

IV/ Thành phần hóa học:

Thành phần hóa học thay đổi tùy theo bộ phận:
- Lá chứa nhiều xanthones loại di và tri hydroxy-methoxy (methyl, butyl…)
- Gỗ thân có maclurin, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy xanthone và xanthone-glucosides.
- Vỏ quả: có chrysanthemin, tannins (7-13 %), các hợp chất đắng loại xanthones như mangostin (gồm cả 3-isomangostin, 3-isomangostin hydrate, 1-iso mangostin, alpha và beta mangostin, gamma-mangostin, nor-mangostin…), garcinones A, B, C; kolanone; các xanthones như BR-xanthone-A, -B.
- Áo hạt: calabaxanthone, demethyl calabaxanthone, mangostin.
- Nhựa: chứa xanthones có những hoạt tính kháng sinh, chống sưng và kháng nấm, đặc biệt là một hợp chất loại biphenyl geranylated (Natural Products Tháng 4-2005)

V/ Dược tính:

1- Y dược dân gian:

- Tại Thái Lan: Vỏ măng cụt khô được dùng để trị tiêu chảy, chữa vết thương. Để trị tiêu chảy, vỏ khô được nấu với nước vôi, chắt lấy nước để uống.

- Tại Việt Nam: Vỏ quả được sắc dùng uống để trị tiêu chảy, kiết lỵ; Nước sắc được dùng để rửa vệ sinh phụ nữ.

- Tại Ấn Độ: Cây được gọi là mangustan, vỏ để trị tiêu chảy. Lá nấu để xúc miệng, trị lở trong miệng.

2- Các nghiên cứu dược học về măng cụt: (theo Thai Medicinal Plants)

- Tác dụng ức nén hệ thần kinh trung ương: Mangostin, một hợp chất loại xanthone và các chất chuyển hóa tạo ra nhưng phản ứng ức chế thần kinh trung ương gây các triệu chứng như sụp mi mắt (ptosis), dịu đau, giảm hoạt động của thần kinh vận động, tăng cường hoạt tính gây ngủ và gây mê của pentobarbital.

- Tác dụng trên hệ tim mạch: Mangostin-3, 6-di-O-glucoside tạo ra các hiệu ứng rõ rệt trên hệ tim mạch của ếch và chó: Gây kích thích cơ tim, tăng huyết áp nơi thú vật thử nghiệm. Cả hai tác dụng này đều bị ức chế một phần bởi propranolol.

- Tác dụng chống sưng, viêm: Mangostin, 1-isomanfostin và mangos tin triacetate có những hoạt tính chống sưng khi dùng chích qua màng phúc mô hay khi cho uống nơi chuột bị gây phù chân bằng carrageenan, hay bằng cấy cục bông gòn dưới da..Các chất này không có hiệu ứng ổn định màng tế bào. Các hoạt tính chống viêm này được giải thích là do ở ức chế hoạt động của men IKK (inhibitor kappaB kinase) do đó ngăn được sự chuyển mã (transcription) gen COX-2 và gây giảm bài tiết PGE(2) là tác nhân chính trong tiến trình gây sưng. (Molecular Pharmacology Tháng 9-2004). Gamma-mangostin, một xanthone loại tetraoxygenated diprenylated, có hoạt tính ức chế tương tranh hoạt động của cả COX-1 lẫn COX-2 ở liều IC50=0.8 và 2 micro M (Biochemistry Pharmacology Tháng 1/2002)

- Tác dụng chống ung loét bao tử: Mangostin có hoạt tính chống ung loét khi thử trên chuột.

- Hoạt tính kháng sinh: Có nhiều nghiên cứu ghi nhận khả năng kháng sinh của vỏ măng cụt. Các vi khuẩn thử nghiệm thuộc nhóm gây kiết lỵ như shigella dysenteriae, sh. flexneri, sh. sonnei và sh. boydii hoặc thuộc nhóm gây tiêu chảy như escherichia coli, streptococcus feacalis, vibryo cholerae. Hỗn hợp thô 5 loại xanthones, trích từ vỏ măng cụt (mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, gartanin và 8-deoxygartanin) có tác dụng ức chế sự tăng trưởng của s.aureus.

Mangostin ức chế S. aureus (cả chủng bình thường lẫn chủng kháng penicillin ở nồng độ tối thiểu (MIC=Minimal inhibitory concentration là 7.8 mg/ml. Alpha, beta-mangostin và Garcinone B có tác dụng ức chế sự tăng trưởng của Mycobacterium tuberculosis ở nồng độ MIC= 6.25 mcg/ml. Dịch chiết vỏ măng cụt bằng ethanol có tiềm năng ức chế được protease của HIV-1. Hoạt tính này được xác định là do mangostin (IC50=5.12 +/- 0.41 microM) và gamma-mangostin (IC50= 4.81 +/- 0.32 microM) (Planta Medica Tháng 8-1996)

- Hoạt tính kháng nấm: Mangostin kháng được trichophyton menta grophytes, microsporum gypseum và epidermophyton floccosum ở nồng độ 1 mg/ml nhưng không tác dụng trên candida albicans. Nghiên cứu tại Trung Tâm Nghiên Cứu Nông Nghiệp Madras (Ấn độ) ghi nhận xanthones trích từ vỏ măng cụt có hoạt tính chống các loại nấm gây bệnh fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum, alternaria tenuis và dreschlera oryzae.

- Tác dụng diệt cá: Dịch chiết bằng nước vỏ măng cụt cho thấy có tác dụng diệt cá rô phi (Tilapia = Oreochromis niloticus) ở nồng độ 1,000 ppm.

- Hoạt tính chống ung thư: Có khá nhiều nghiên cứu về tác dụng của các xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt trên các tế bào ung thư:

- Nghiên cứu tại Veterans General Hospital, Đài Bắc (Trung Hoa Dân quốc) ghi nhận Garcinone E, một chất chuyển hóa xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt có hoạt tính diệt bào trên tế bào ung thư gan loại hepatocellular carcinomas, ung thư ruột và ung thư phổi (Planta Medica Số 11-2002).

- Nghiên cứu tại Bộ môn Sinh học về Dược Phân tử tại ĐH Dược Tohoku (Nhật) ghi nhận các xanthones trong vỏ măng cụt một số hoạt tính gây apoptosis (tiến trình tế bào được mã hóa để tự hủy diệt) trên các tế bào ung thư loại pheochromocytoma nơi chuột: Alpha-mangostin được cho là có khả năng ức chế được men Ca(2+)-ATPase là men gây ra apoptosis qua các lộ trình nơi mitochondria (Journal of Pharmacology Sciences (Tháng 5/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Bộ Môn Vi trùng Học, ĐH Dược Khoa, Viện ĐH Mahidol (Bangkok-Thai Lan) cho thấy dịch chiết vỏ măng cụt bằng methanol có hoạt tính khá mạnh ngăn chặn được sự phát triển, có tiềm lực oxy hóa mạnh, và gây apoptosis nơi tế bào ung thư vú của người (loại SKBR3) (Jourmnal of Ethnopharmacology Tháng 1/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Trường Y Khoa, ĐH Ryukyus (Okinawa-Nhật) cho thấy alpha-mangostin thô có tiềm lực ức chế được sự tăng trưởng, phát triển của các tế bào ung thư ruột loại ‘preneoplastic’ nơi chuột thử nghiệm (Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Tháng 10/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Viện Kỹ thuật Sinh Học Gifu (Nhật) ghi nhận càc xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt, nhất là alpha-mangostin, có tác dụng ức chế được sự tăng trưởng của tế bào ung thư máu nơi người (dòng tế bào ung thư HL60). Liều ức chế hoàn toàn là 10 microM (Journal of Natural Products Tháng 8/2003)

Tài liệu sử dụng:
•Thai Medicinal Plants (Norman Farnsworth & Nunthavan Buniapra phatsara).
•Từ điển Cây thuốc Việ Nam (Võ văn Chi)
•Whole Foods Companion (Dianne Onstad)
•The Oxford Companion to Food (Alain Davidson)

**** QUY TRÌNH, KỶ THUẬT TRỒNG VÀ CHĂM SÓC VÀ THU HOẠCH CÂY MĂNG CỤT
www.skhcn.vinhlong.gov.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=143&ctl=…

**** KỶ THUẬT TRỒNG CÂY MĂNG CỤT :
hoinongdan.cantho.gov.vn/?tabid=138&ndid=52&key=

**** www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn/dongy/show_target.plx?url=/thuocdongy/…

___________________________________________________________

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/mangosteen.html

One of the most praised of tropical fruits, and certainly the most esteemed fruit in the family Guttiferae, the mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., is nearly universally known or heard of by this name. There are copious variations in nomenclature: among Spanish-speaking people, it is called mangostan; to the French, it is mangostanier, mangoustanier, mangouste or mangostier; in Portuguese, it is mangostao, mangosta or mangusta; in Dutch, it is manggis or manggistan; in Vietnamese, mang cut; in Malaya, it may be referred to in any of these languages or by the local terms, mesetor, semetah, or sementah; in the Philippines, it is mangis or mangostan. Throughout the Malay Archipelago, there are many different spellings of names similar to most of the above.

Plate XLI: MANGOSTEEN, Garcinia mangostana—Painted by Dr. M.J. Dijkman Description

The mangosteen tree is very slow-growing, erect, with a pyramidal crown; attains 20 to 82 ft (6-25 m) in height, has dark-brown or nearly black, flaking bark, the inner bark containing much yellow, gummy, bitter latex. The evergreen, opposite, fleeting-stalked leaves are ovate-oblong or elliptic, leathery and thick, dark-green, slightly glossy above, yellowish-green and dull beneath; 3 1/2 to 10 in (9-25 cm) long, 1 3/4 to 4 in (4.5-10 cm) wide, with conspicuous, pale midrib. New leaves are rosy. plants, 1 1/2 to 2 in (4-5 cm) wide and fleshy, may be male or hermaphrodite on the same tree. The ex- are in clusters of 3-9 at the branch tips; there are 4 sepals and 4 ovate, thick, fleshy petals, green with red spots on the outside, yellowish-red inside, and many stamens though the aborted anthers bear no pollen. The hermaphrodite are borne singly or in pairs at the tips of childish branchlets; their petals may be yellowish-green edged with red or mostly red, and are quickly shed.

The fruit, capped by the prominent calyx at the stem end and with 4 to 8 triangular, flat bits and pieces of the stigma in a rosette at the apex, is round, dark-purple to red-purple and smooth externally; 1 1/3 to 3 in (3.4-7.5 cm) in diameter. The rind is 1/4 to 3/8 in (6-10 mm) thick, red in cross-section, purplish-white on the inside. It contains bitter yellow latex and a purple, staining juice. There are 4 to 8 triangular segments of snow-white, juicy, soft flesh (really the arils of the seeds). The fruit may be seedless or have 1 to 5 fully developed seeds, ovoid-oblong, to some extent flattened, 1 in (2.5 cm) long and 5/8 in (1.6 cm) wide, that cling to the flesh. The flesh is slightly acid and mild to distinctly acid in flavor and is acclaimed as exquisitely luscious and tasty.

Origin and Distribution

The place of origin of the mangosteen is unknown but is believed to be the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas; still, there are wild trees in the forests of Kemaman, Malaya. Corner suggests that the tree may have been first domesticated in Thailand, or Burma. It is much cultivated in Thailand–where there were 9,700 acres (4,000 ha) in 1965–also in Kampuchea, southern Vietnam and Burma, throughout Malaya and Singapore. The tree was planted in Ceylon about 1800 and in India in 1881. There it succeeds in 4 limited areas–the Nilgiri Hills, the Tinnevelly district of southern Madras, the Kanya-kumani district at the southernmost tip of the Madras peninsula, and in Kerala State in southwestern India. The tree is honestly common only in the provinces of Mindanao and Sulu (or Jolo) in the Philippines. It is rare in Queensland, where it has been tried many times since 1854, and poorly represented in tropical Africa (Zanzibar, Ghana, Gabon and Liberia). There were fruiting trees in greenhouses in England in 1855. The mangosteen was introduced into Trinidad from the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, England, between 1850 and 1860 and the first fruit was borne in 1875. It reached the Panama Canal Zone and Puerto Rico in 1903 but there are only a few trees in these areas, in Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba, and some scattered around other parts of the West Indies. The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from Java in 1906 (S.P.I. #17146). A large test block of productive trees has been maintained at the Lancetilla Experimental Rank at Tela, Honduras, for many years. Quite a few trees distributed by the United Fruit Company long ago have done well on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. In 1924, Dr. Wilson Popenoe saw the mangosteen growing at one site in Ecuador. In 1939, 15,000 seeds were distributed by the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens to many areas of tropical America. It is probable that only a relatively few seedlings survived. It is known that many die during the first year. Dr. Victor Patiño has observed flourishing mangosteen trees at the site of an ancient mining settlement in Mariquita, Colombia, in the Magdalena Valley and the fruits are sold on local markets. Dierberger Agricola Ltda., of Sao Paulo, included the mangosteen in their nursery catalog in 1949.

Despite early trials in Hawaii, the tree has not be converted into well acclimatized and is still rare in those islands. Neither has it been thriving in California. It encounters very unfavorable soil and climate in Florida. Some plants have been grown for a time in containers in greenhouses. One tree in a very protected coastal location and special soil lived to yield a single fruit and then succumbed to winter cold.

Despite the oft-repeated Ancient World enthusiasm for this fruit, it is not always viewed as worth the vex to yield. In Jamaica, it is regarded as nice but overrated; not comparable to a excellent field-ripe pineapple or a choice mango.

Varieties

According to Corner, the fruit from seedling trees is honestly uniform; only one distinct variation is known and that is in the Sulu Islands. The fruit is larger, the rind thicker than normal, and the flesh more acid; the flavor more pronounced. In North Borneo, a seemingly wild form has only 4 carpels, each containing a fully-developed seed, and this is doubtless not unique.

Climate

The mangosteen is ultra-tropical. It cannot tolerate temperatures below 40º F (4.44º C), nor above 100º F (37.78º C). Nursery seedlings are killed at 45º F (7.22º C).

It is limited in Malaya to elevations below 1,500 ft (450 m). In Madras it grows from 250 to 5,000 ft (76-1,500 m) above sea-level. Attempts to establish it north of 200 latitude have all failed.

It ordinarily requires high atmospheric humidity and an annual rainfall of at least 50 in (127 cm), and no long periods of drought. In Dominica, mangosteens growing in an area having 80 in (200 cm) of rain yearly required special care, but those in another locality with 105 in (255 cm) and soil with better moisture- holding capacity, flourished.

Soil

The tree is not adapted to limestone and does best in deep, rich organic soil, especially sandy loam or laterite. In India, the most productive specimens are on clay containing much coarse material and a small silt. Sandy alluvial soils are unsuitable and sand low in humus contributes to low yields. The tree needs excellent drainage and the water table ought to be about 6 ft (1.8 m) below ground level. But, in the Canal Zone, productive mangosteen groves have been established where it is too wet for other fruit trees–in swamps requiring drainage ditches between rows and in situations where the roots were bathed with flowing water most of the year, in spite of the fact that standing water in nursery beds will kill seedlings. The mangosteen must be privileged from strong winds and salt spray, as well as saline soil or water.

Propagation

Technically, the so-called "seeds" are not right seeds but adventitious embryos, or hypocotyl tubercles, inasmuch as there has been no sexual fertilization. When progression starts, a shoot emerges from one end of the seed and a root from the other end. But this root is fleeting-lived and is replaced by roots which develop at the base of the shoot. The process of reproduction being vegetative, there is naturally small variation in the resulting trees and their fruits. Some of the seeds are polyembryonic, producing more than one shoot. The individual nucellar embryos can be separated, if desired, before planting.

Inasmuch as the percentage of germination is directly related to the weight of the seed, only plump, fully developed seeds should be chosen for planting. Even these will lose viability in 5 days after removal from the fruit, though they are viable for 3 to 5 weeks in the fruit. Seeds packed in lightly dampened peat moss, sphagnum moss or coconut fiber in airtight containers have remained viable for 3 months. Only 22% germination has been realized in seeds packed in ground charcoal for 15 days. Soaking in water for 24 hours expedites and enhances the rate of germination. Generally, sprouting occurs in 20 to 22 days and is complete in 43 days.

Because of the long, delicate taproot and poor unencumbered root development, transplanting is notoriously hard. It must not be attempted after the plants reach 2 ft (60 cm). At that time the depth of the taproot may exceed that height. There is greater seedling survival if seeds are planted directly in the nursery row than if first grown in containers and then transplanted to the nursery. The nursery soil should be 3 ft (1 m) deep, at least. The childish plants take 2 years or more to reach a height of 12 in (30 cm), when they can be taken up with a deep ball of earth and set out. Fruiting may take place in 7 to 9 years from planting but usually not for 10 or even 20 years.

Conventional vegetative propagation of the mangosteen is hard. Various methods of grafting have failed. Cuttings and air-layers, with or without progression-promoting chemicals, usually fail to root or result in buckled, fleeting-lived plants. Inarching on different rootstocks has appeared promising at first but later incompatibility has been evident with all apart from G. xanthochymus Hook. f. (G tinctoria Dunn.) or G. lateriflora Bl., now frequently employed in the Philippines.

In Florida, approach-grafting has succeeded only by planting a seed of G. xanthochymus about 1 1/4 in (3 cm) from the base of a mangosteen seedling in a container and, when the stem of the G. xanthochymus seedling has be converted into 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, joining it onto the 3/16 to 1/4 in (5-6 mm) thick stem of the mangosteen at a point about 4 in (10 cm) above the soil. When the graft has healed, the G. xanthochymus seedling is beheaded. The mangosteen will make excellent progress having both root systems to grow on, while the G. xanthochymus rootstock will develop very small.

Culture

A spacing of 35 to 40 ft (10.7-12 m) is not compulsory. Planting is preferably done at the beginning of the rainy season. Pits 4 x 4 x 4 1/2 ft (1.2 x l.2 x l.3 m) are prepared at least 30 days in advance, enriched with organic topic and topsoil and left to weather. The childish tree is place in place very carefully so as not to injure the root and agreed a heavy watering. Partial shading with palm fronds or by other earnings should be maintained for 3 to 5 years. Indian growers give each tree regular feeding with well-rotted manure–100 to 200 lbs (45-90 kg)–and peanut meal–10 to 15 lbs (4.5-6.8 kg) whole, per year.

Some of the most fruitful mangosteen trees are growing on the banks of streams, lakes, ponds or canals where the roots are nearly constantly wet. But, dry weather just before blooming time and during flowering induces a excellent fruit-set. Where a moist planting site is not available, irrigation ditches should be dug to make it possible to maintain an adequate water supply and the trees are irrigated nearly daily during the dry season.

In Malaya and Ceylon, it is a common practice to spread a mulch of coconut husks or fronds to retain moisture. A 16-in (40-cm) mulch of grass restored trees that had begun dehydrating in Liberia. It has been suggested that small inner branches be pruned from ancient, unproductive trees to stimulate bearing. In Thailand, the tree is said to take 12 to 20 years to fruit. In Panama and Puerto Rico trees grown from large seed and agreed excellent culture have borne in six years.

Season and Harvesting

At low altitudes in Ceylon the fruit ripens from May to July; at higher elevations, in July and August or August and September. In India, there are 2 distinct fruiting seasons, one in the monsoon cycle (July-October) and another from April through June. Puerto Rican trees in full sun fruit in July and August; shaded trees, in November and December.

Cropping is irregular and the yield varies from tree to tree and from season to season. The first crop may be 200 to 300 fruits. Average yield of a full-grown tree is about 500 fruits. The yield steadily increases up to the 30th year of bearing when crops of 1,000 to 2,000 fruits may be obtained. In Madras, individual trees between the ages of 20 and 45 years have borne 2,000 to 3,000 fruits. Productivity increasingly declines thereafter, though the tree will still be fruiting at 100 years of age.

Ripeness is gauged by the full development of color and slight softening. Picking may be done when the fruits are slightly underripe but they must be fully mature (developed) or they will not ripen after picking. The fruits must be harvested by hand from ladders or by earnings of a cutting pole and not be allowable to fall.

Maintenance Quality

In dry, warm, closed storage, mangosteens can be held 20 to 25 days. Longer periods cause the outer skin to toughen and the rind to be converted into rubbery; later, the rind hardens and becomes hard to open and the flesh turns dry.

Ripe mangosteens keep well for 3 to 4 weeks in storage at 40º to 55º F (4.44º-12.78º C). Trials in India have shown that optimum conditions for cold storage are temperatures of 39º to 42º F (3.89º-5.56º C) and relative humidity of 85 to 90%, which maintain quality for 49 days. It is not compulsory that the fruits be wrapped in bandanna paper and packed 25-to-the-box in light wooden crates with excelsior padding. Fruits picked slightly green have been shipped from Burma to the United Kingdom at 50º to 55º F (10º-12.78º C). From 1927 to 1929, trial shipments were made from Java to Holland at 37.4º F (approximately 2.38º C) and the fruits kept in excellent condition for 24 days.

Mice and Diseases

Few mice have been reported. A leaf-eating caterpillar in India may perhaps be the same as that which attacks new shoots in the Philippines and which has been identified as Orgyra sp. of the tussock moth family, Lymantridae. A small ant, Myrnelachista ramulorum, in Puerto Rico, colonizes the tree, tunnels into the trunk and branches, and hurts the new progression. Mites sometimes despoil the fruits with small bites and scratches. Fully ripe fruits are attacked by monkeys, bats and rats in Asia.

In Puerto Rico, thread blight caused by the fungus, Pellicularia koleroga, is often seen on branchlets, plants and fruits of trees in shaded, humid areas. The fruits may be converted into coated with webbing and ruined. In Malaya, the fungus, Zignoella garcineae, gives rise to "canker"–tuberous growths on the branches, causing a fatal dying-back of plants, branches and eventually the entire tree. Breakdown in storage is caused by the fungi Diplodia gossypina, Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Gloeosporium sp., and Rhizopus nigricans.

A major physiological problem called "gamboge" is evidenced by the oozing of latex onto the outer surface of the fruits and on the branches during periods of heavy and continuous rains. It does not affect eating quality. Fruit-cracking may occur because of excessive absorption of moisture. In cracked fruits the flesh will be swollen and mushy. Bruising caused by the force of storms may be an valuable factor in both of these abnormalities. Fruits exposed to strong sun may also exude latex. Mangosteens produced in Honduras often have crystal-like "stones" in the flesh and they may render the fruit absolutely inedible.

Food Uses

To select the best table fruits, choose those with the highest number of stigma lobes at the apex, for these have the highest number of fleshy segments and in view of that the fewest seeds. The numbers always correspond. Mangosteens are usually eaten fresh as dessert. One need only hold the fruit with the stem-end downward, take a sharp knife and cut around the middle absolutely through the rind, and lift off the top half, which leaves the fleshy segments exposed in the colorful "cup"–the bottom half of the rind. The segments are lifted out by fork.

The fleshy segments are sometimes canned, but they are said to lose their delicate flavor in canning, especially if pasteurized for as much as 10 minutes. Tests have shown that it is best to use a 40% sirup and sterilize for only 5 minutes. The more acid fruits are best for preserving. To make jam, in Malaya, seedless segments are boiled with an equal amount of honey and a few cloves for 15 to 20 minutes and then place into glass jars. In the Philippines, a preserve is made by simply boiling the segments in brown honey, and the seeds may be included to enrich the flavor.

The seeds are sometimes eaten alone after boiling or roasting.

The rind is rich in pectin. After treatment with 6% sodium chloride to eliminate astringency, the rind is made into a purplish jelly.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Part*
Calories60-63
Moisture80.2-84.9 g
Protein0.50-0.60 g
Fat0.1-0.6 g
Whole Carbohydrates14.3-15.6 g
Whole Sugars16.42-16.82 g
(sucrose, glucose and fructose)
Fiber5.0-5.1 g
Ash0.2-0.23 g
Calcium0.01-8.0 mg
Phosphorus0.02-12.0 mg
Iron0.20-0.80 mg
Thiamine0.03 mg
Ascorbic Acid1.0-2.0 mg
*Minimum/maximum values from analyses made in the Philippines and Washington, D.C.

Phytin (an organic phosphorus compound) constitutes up to 0.68% on a dry-weight basis. The flesh amounts to 31% of the whole fruit.

Other Uses

Mangosteen twigs are used as chewsticks in Ghana. The fruit rind contains 7 to 14% catechin tannin and rosin, and is used for tanning leather in China. It also yields a black dye.

Wood: In Thailand, all non-bearing trees are felled, so the wood is available but usually only in small dimensions. It is dark-brown, heavy, nearly sinks in water, and is moderately durable. It has been used to make handles for spears, also rice pounders, and is employed in construction and cabinetwork.

Medicinal Uses: Dried fruits are shipped from Singapore to Calcutta and to China for medicinal use. The sliced and dried rind is minced and administered to overcome dysentery. Made into an ointment, it is applied on eczema and other skin disorders. The rind decoction is taken to relieve diarrhea and cystitis, gonorrhea and gleet and is applied externally as an astringent oil. A part of the rind is steeped in water overnight and the infusion agreed as a remedy for chronic diarrhea in adults and family. Filipinos use a decoction of the leaves and bark as a febrifuge and to treat thrush, diarrhea, dysentery and urinary disorders. In Malaya, an infusion of the leaves, combined with green banana and a small benzoin is applied to the wound of circumcision. A root decoction is taken to regulate menstruation. A bark extract called "amibiasine", has been marketed for the treatment of amoebic dysentery.

The rind of partially ripe fruits yields a polyhydroxy-xanthone derivative termed mangostin, also ß-mangostin. That of fully ripe fruits contains the xanthones, gartanin, 8-disoxygartanin, and normangostin. A derivative of mangostin, mangostin-e, 6-di-O-glucoside, is a central nervous logic depressant and causes a rise in blood pressure.

**** www.stuartxchange.org/Mangosteen.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_mangosteen
www.tropilab.com/gar-man.html
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18725264

Queen of Fruits, Garcinia mangostana ‘s fruits are developing …Những trái Măng Cụt đang trưởng thành …
high calorie

Image by Vietnam Plants / Cây cỏ Vietnam
Chụp hình ở huyện Củ Chi, thành phố Hồ chí Minh, miền Nam Vietnam.

Taken in Củ Chi district, Hồ chí Minh city, South Vietnam.

Vietnamese named : Măng Cụt
Common names : Queen of Fruits ,
Scientist name : Garcinia mangostana L.
Synonyms :
Family : Clusiaceae . Họ Bứa
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Genus:Garcinia
Species:G. mangostana

Links :

**** tvvn.org/forum/showwiki.php?title=Chapter:M%C4%83ng_C%E1%…

Giá Trị Dinh Dưỡng và Dược Tính Của Măng Cụt

Dược Sĩ Trần Việt Hưng

Măng cụt, một trái cây nhiệt đới đã được giới tiêu-thụ Âu-Mỹ đánh giá là một trong những trái cây ngon nhất, Jacobus Bontius đã gọi măng cụt là ‘Hoàng hậu của các loại trái cây (Queen of fruits)’, mà nếu có dịp gặp được quả tươi thì hãy thử ngay, đừng chần chừ. Bên cạnh gíá trị dinh dưỡng cao, măng cụt còn là một nguồn cung cấp dược liệu để trị bệnh khá độc đáo, những nghiên cứu mới đã nhằm vào khả năng trị ung thư của cây.

I/ Tên khoa học và các tên thông thường:

Garcinia mangostana thuộc họ thực vật Clusiaceae (Guttifereae)

Các tên gọi khác: Mangosteen (Anh-Mỹ), Mangoustan (Pháp), Sơn Trúc Tử (Trung Hoa), Mangkhut (Thái lan)

Giống Garcinia được đặt tên để ghi nhớ nhà thực vật học Laurence Garcia, người đã sưu tập các mẫu cây cỏ và sống tại Ấn Độ vào thế kỷ 18. Mangostana và tên Anh ngữ mangosteen đều phát xuất từ tên Mã lai của cây: mangustan.

II/ Đặc tính thực vật:

Măng cụt có nguồn gốc từ Mã Lai và Indonesia, được trồng từ hàng chục thế kỷ, cây đã được Thuyền Trưởng Cook mô tả khá chi tiết từ năm 1770, và được đưa đến Sri Lanka vào năm 1800, được trồng tại Anh trong các nhà kiếng (green household) từ 1855, sau đó đưa đến West Indies từ giữa thế kỷ 19. Đây là một loại cây đòi hỏi điều kiện thổ nhưỡng khắt khe cần khí hậu nóng và ẩm, cây tăng trưởng rất chậm, sau 2-3 năm cây chỉ cao đến đầu gối, chỉ bắt đầu cho quả sau 10-15 năm.. Cây đã được các nhà truyền giáo du nhập vào Nam Việt Nam từ lâu, trồng nhiều nhất tại Lái Thiêu, Thủ Dầu Một. Việt Nam đã có lúc là nơi có những vườn măng cụt lớn nhất thế giới, với những vườn rộng hàng chục mẫu, có hàng ngàn cây, mỗi cây cho được từ 700 đến 900 quả. Cây hiện được trồng nhiều tại Thái Lan, Kampuchea, Myanmar (Miến điện), Sri Lanka và Philippines.

Hiện có khoảng 100 loài khác nhau được nuôi trồng.

Măng cụt thuộc loại cây to, trung bình 7-12 m nhưng có thể cao đến 20- 25 m, thân có vỏ màu nâu đen xậm, có nhựa (resin) màu vàng. Lá dày và cứng, bóng, mọc đối, mặt trên của lá có màu xậm hơn mặt dưới, hình thuôn dài 15-25 cm, rộng 6-11 cm, cuống dài 1.2-2.5 cm. Hoa đa tính thường là hoa cái và hoa lưỡng tính. Hoa mọc đơn độc hay từng đôi. Hoa loại lưỡng tính màu trắng hay hồng nhạt, có 4 lá đài và 4 cánh hoa, có 16-17 nhị và bầu noãn có 5-8 ô. Quả hình cầu tròn, đường kính chừng 4-7 cm, có mang đài hoa còn tồn tại; vỏ quả màu đỏ nâu, dai và xốp. Quả chứa 5-8 hạt: quanh hạt có lớp áo bọc màu trắng có vị ngọt, thơm và khá ngon. Cây trổ hoa vào tháng 2-5, ra quả trong các tháng 5-8.
(giống Garcinia còn gồm một số cây tương cận, đa số mọc trong vùng Đông Ấn = West Indies, trong đó có thể kể Garcinia cambogia hay Bứa, Garcinia cowa cung cấp quả Cowa-Mangosteen lớn hơn và có khía màu vàng apricot, vị chua; Garcinia indica hay Cocum = Conca cho quả chua, áo hạt màu tím, dùng làm giấm, hạt ép lấy dầu.)

III/ Thành phần dinh dưỡng:

100 gram phần ăn được (quả tươi) chứa
- Calories 60-63
- Chất đạm 0.5-0.60 g
- Chất béo 0.1-0.60 g
- Chất carbohydrates 10-14.7 g
- Chất sơ 5.0-5.10 g
- Calcium 0.01- 8 mg
- Sắt 0.20- 0.80 mg
- Phosphorus 0.02- 12.0 mg
- Thiamine (B1) 0.03 mg
- Vitamin C 1-2 mg
(ngoài ra còn có Potassium, Niacin…)

Quả măng cụt thường được ăn tươi, khía quanh quả, bẻ đôi theo đường khía, để ăn các múi trắng, bỏ hột trong, có vị ngọt, mọng nước. Tại đảo Sulu có giống măng cụt vị hơi chua, được dùng làm mứt trộn với đường thô. Tại Mã Lai, quả chưa chín hẳn được dùng làm mứt halwa manggis.

Măng cụt rất mau hư, có thể giữ 2-3 ngày ở nhiệt độ bình thường, khoảng 1 tuần trong tủ lạnh nhưng không thể giữ trong tủ đông lạnh (freezer)

IV/ Thành phần hóa học:

Thành phần hóa học thay đổi tùy theo bộ phận:
- Lá chứa nhiều xanthones loại di và tri hydroxy-methoxy (methyl, butyl…)
- Gỗ thân có maclurin, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy xanthone và xanthone-glucosides.
- Vỏ quả: có chrysanthemin, tannins (7-13 %), các hợp chất đắng loại xanthones như mangostin (gồm cả 3-isomangostin, 3-isomangostin hydrate, 1-iso mangostin, alpha và beta mangostin, gamma-mangostin, nor-mangostin…), garcinones A, B, C; kolanone; các xanthones như BR-xanthone-A, -B.
- Áo hạt: calabaxanthone, demethyl calabaxanthone, mangostin.
- Nhựa: chứa xanthones có những hoạt tính kháng sinh, chống sưng và kháng nấm, đặc biệt là một hợp chất loại biphenyl geranylated (Natural Products Tháng 4-2005)

V/ Dược tính:

1- Y dược dân gian:

- Tại Thái Lan: Vỏ măng cụt khô được dùng để trị tiêu chảy, chữa vết thương. Để trị tiêu chảy, vỏ khô được nấu với nước vôi, chắt lấy nước để uống.

- Tại Việt Nam: Vỏ quả được sắc dùng uống để trị tiêu chảy, kiết lỵ; Nước sắc được dùng để rửa vệ sinh phụ nữ.

- Tại Ấn Độ: Cây được gọi là mangustan, vỏ để trị tiêu chảy. Lá nấu để xúc miệng, trị lở trong miệng.

2- Các nghiên cứu dược học về măng cụt: (theo Thai Medicinal Plants)

- Tác dụng ức nén hệ thần kinh trung ương: Mangostin, một hợp chất loại xanthone và các chất chuyển hóa tạo ra nhưng phản ứng ức chế thần kinh trung ương gây các triệu chứng như sụp mi mắt (ptosis), dịu đau, giảm hoạt động của thần kinh vận động, tăng cường hoạt tính gây ngủ và gây mê của pentobarbital.

- Tác dụng trên hệ tim mạch: Mangostin-3, 6-di-O-glucoside tạo ra các hiệu ứng rõ rệt trên hệ tim mạch của ếch và chó: Gây kích thích cơ tim, tăng huyết áp nơi thú vật thử nghiệm. Cả hai tác dụng này đều bị ức chế một phần bởi propranolol.

- Tác dụng chống sưng, viêm: Mangostin, 1-isomanfostin và mangos tin triacetate có những hoạt tính chống sưng khi dùng chích qua màng phúc mô hay khi cho uống nơi chuột bị gây phù chân bằng carrageenan, hay bằng cấy cục bông gòn dưới da..Các chất này không có hiệu ứng ổn định màng tế bào. Các hoạt tính chống viêm này được giải thích là do ở ức chế hoạt động của men IKK (inhibitor kappaB kinase) do đó ngăn được sự chuyển mã (transcription) gen COX-2 và gây giảm bài tiết PGE(2) là tác nhân chính trong tiến trình gây sưng. (Molecular Pharmacology Tháng 9-2004). Gamma-mangostin, một xanthone loại tetraoxygenated diprenylated, có hoạt tính ức chế tương tranh hoạt động của cả COX-1 lẫn COX-2 ở liều IC50=0.8 và 2 micro M (Biochemistry Pharmacology Tháng 1/2002)

- Tác dụng chống ung loét bao tử: Mangostin có hoạt tính chống ung loét khi thử trên chuột.

- Hoạt tính kháng sinh: Có nhiều nghiên cứu ghi nhận khả năng kháng sinh của vỏ măng cụt. Các vi khuẩn thử nghiệm thuộc nhóm gây kiết lỵ như shigella dysenteriae, sh. flexneri, sh. sonnei và sh. boydii hoặc thuộc nhóm gây tiêu chảy như escherichia coli, streptococcus feacalis, vibryo cholerae. Hỗn hợp thô 5 loại xanthones, trích từ vỏ măng cụt (mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, gartanin và 8-deoxygartanin) có tác dụng ức chế sự tăng trưởng của s.aureus.

Mangostin ức chế S. aureus (cả chủng bình thường lẫn chủng kháng penicillin ở nồng độ tối thiểu (MIC=Minimal inhibitory concentration là 7.8 mg/ml. Alpha, beta-mangostin và Garcinone B có tác dụng ức chế sự tăng trưởng của Mycobacterium tuberculosis ở nồng độ MIC= 6.25 mcg/ml. Dịch chiết vỏ măng cụt bằng ethanol có tiềm năng ức chế được protease của HIV-1. Hoạt tính này được xác định là do mangostin (IC50=5.12 +/- 0.41 microM) và gamma-mangostin (IC50= 4.81 +/- 0.32 microM) (Planta Medica Tháng 8-1996)

- Hoạt tính kháng nấm: Mangostin kháng được trichophyton menta grophytes, microsporum gypseum và epidermophyton floccosum ở nồng độ 1 mg/ml nhưng không tác dụng trên candida albicans. Nghiên cứu tại Trung Tâm Nghiên Cứu Nông Nghiệp Madras (Ấn độ) ghi nhận xanthones trích từ vỏ măng cụt có hoạt tính chống các loại nấm gây bệnh fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum, alternaria tenuis và dreschlera oryzae.

- Tác dụng diệt cá: Dịch chiết bằng nước vỏ măng cụt cho thấy có tác dụng diệt cá rô phi (Tilapia = Oreochromis niloticus) ở nồng độ 1,000 ppm.

- Hoạt tính chống ung thư: Có khá nhiều nghiên cứu về tác dụng của các xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt trên các tế bào ung thư:

- Nghiên cứu tại Veterans General Hospital, Đài Bắc (Trung Hoa Dân quốc) ghi nhận Garcinone E, một chất chuyển hóa xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt có hoạt tính diệt bào trên tế bào ung thư gan loại hepatocellular carcinomas, ung thư ruột và ung thư phổi (Planta Medica Số 11-2002).

- Nghiên cứu tại Bộ môn Sinh học về Dược Phân tử tại ĐH Dược Tohoku (Nhật) ghi nhận các xanthones trong vỏ măng cụt một số hoạt tính gây apoptosis (tiến trình tế bào được mã hóa để tự hủy diệt) trên các tế bào ung thư loại pheochromocytoma nơi chuột: Alpha-mangostin được cho là có khả năng ức chế được men Ca(2+)-ATPase là men gây ra apoptosis qua các lộ trình nơi mitochondria (Journal of Pharmacology Sciences (Tháng 5/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Bộ Môn Vi trùng Học, ĐH Dược Khoa, Viện ĐH Mahidol (Bangkok-Thai Lan) cho thấy dịch chiết vỏ măng cụt bằng methanol có hoạt tính khá mạnh ngăn chặn được sự phát triển, có tiềm lực oxy hóa mạnh, và gây apoptosis nơi tế bào ung thư vú của người (loại SKBR3) (Jourmnal of Ethnopharmacology Tháng 1/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Trường Y Khoa, ĐH Ryukyus (Okinawa-Nhật) cho thấy alpha-mangostin thô có tiềm lực ức chế được sự tăng trưởng, phát triển của các tế bào ung thư ruột loại ‘preneoplastic’ nơi chuột thử nghiệm (Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Tháng 10/2004)

- Nghiên cứu tại Viện Kỹ thuật Sinh Học Gifu (Nhật) ghi nhận càc xanthone trích từ vỏ măng cụt, nhất là alpha-mangostin, có tác dụng ức chế được sự tăng trưởng của tế bào ung thư máu nơi người (dòng tế bào ung thư HL60). Liều ức chế hoàn toàn là 10 microM (Journal of Natural Products Tháng 8/2003)

Tài liệu sử dụng:
•Thai Medicinal Plants (Norman Farnsworth & Nunthavan Buniapra phatsara).
•Từ điển Cây thuốc Việ Nam (Võ văn Chi)
•Whole Foods Companion (Dianne Onstad)
•The Oxford Companion to Food (Alain Davidson)

**** QUY TRÌNH, KỶ THUẬT TRỒNG VÀ CHĂM SÓC VÀ THU HOẠCH CÂY MĂNG CỤT
www.skhcn.vinhlong.gov.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=143&ctl=…

**** KỶ THUẬT TRỒNG CÂY MĂNG CỤT :
hoinongdan.cantho.gov.vn/?tabid=138&ndid=52&key=

**** www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn/dongy/show_target.plx?url=/thuocdongy/…

___________________________________________________________

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/mangosteen.html

One of the most praised of tropical fruits, and certainly the most esteemed fruit in the family Guttiferae, the mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., is nearly universally known or heard of by this name. There are copious variations in nomenclature: among Spanish-speaking people, it is called mangostan; to the French, it is mangostanier, mangoustanier, mangouste or mangostier; in Portuguese, it is mangostao, mangosta or mangusta; in Dutch, it is manggis or manggistan; in Vietnamese, mang cut; in Malaya, it may be referred to in any of these languages or by the local terms, mesetor, semetah, or sementah; in the Philippines, it is mangis or mangostan. Throughout the Malay Archipelago, there are many different spellings of names similar to most of the above.

Plate XLI: MANGOSTEEN, Garcinia mangostana—Painted by Dr. M.J. Dijkman Description

The mangosteen tree is very slow-growing, erect, with a pyramidal crown; attains 20 to 82 ft (6-25 m) in height, has dark-brown or nearly black, flaking bark, the inner bark containing much yellow, gummy, bitter latex. The evergreen, opposite, fleeting-stalked leaves are ovate-oblong or elliptic, leathery and thick, dark-green, slightly glossy above, yellowish-green and dull beneath; 3 1/2 to 10 in (9-25 cm) long, 1 3/4 to 4 in (4.5-10 cm) wide, with conspicuous, pale midrib. New leaves are rosy. plants, 1 1/2 to 2 in (4-5 cm) wide and fleshy, may be male or hermaphrodite on the same tree. The ex- are in clusters of 3-9 at the branch tips; there are 4 sepals and 4 ovate, thick, fleshy petals, green with red spots on the outside, yellowish-red inside, and many stamens though the aborted anthers bear no pollen. The hermaphrodite are borne singly or in pairs at the tips of childish branchlets; their petals may be yellowish-green edged with red or mostly red, and are quickly shed.

The fruit, capped by the prominent calyx at the stem end and with 4 to 8 triangular, flat bits and pieces of the stigma in a rosette at the apex, is round, dark-purple to red-purple and smooth externally; 1 1/3 to 3 in (3.4-7.5 cm) in diameter. The rind is 1/4 to 3/8 in (6-10 mm) thick, red in cross-section, purplish-white on the inside. It contains bitter yellow latex and a purple, staining juice. There are 4 to 8 triangular segments of snow-white, juicy, soft flesh (really the arils of the seeds). The fruit may be seedless or have 1 to 5 fully developed seeds, ovoid-oblong, to some extent flattened, 1 in (2.5 cm) long and 5/8 in (1.6 cm) wide, that cling to the flesh. The flesh is slightly acid and mild to distinctly acid in flavor and is acclaimed as exquisitely luscious and tasty.

Origin and Distribution

The place of origin of the mangosteen is unknown but is believed to be the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas; still, there are wild trees in the forests of Kemaman, Malaya. Corner suggests that the tree may have been first domesticated in Thailand, or Burma. It is much cultivated in Thailand–where there were 9,700 acres (4,000 ha) in 1965–also in Kampuchea, southern Vietnam and Burma, throughout Malaya and Singapore. The tree was planted in Ceylon about 1800 and in India in 1881. There it succeeds in 4 limited areas–the Nilgiri Hills, the Tinnevelly district of southern Madras, the Kanya-kumani district at the southernmost tip of the Madras peninsula, and in Kerala State in southwestern India. The tree is honestly common only in the provinces of Mindanao and Sulu (or Jolo) in the Philippines. It is rare in Queensland, where it has been tried many times since 1854, and poorly represented in tropical Africa (Zanzibar, Ghana, Gabon and Liberia). There were fruiting trees in greenhouses in England in 1855. The mangosteen was introduced into Trinidad from the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, England, between 1850 and 1860 and the first fruit was borne in 1875. It reached the Panama Canal Zone and Puerto Rico in 1903 but there are only a few trees in these areas, in Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba, and some scattered around other parts of the West Indies. The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from Java in 1906 (S.P.I. #17146). A large test block of productive trees has been maintained at the Lancetilla Experimental Rank at Tela, Honduras, for many years. Quite a few trees distributed by the United Fruit Company long ago have done well on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. In 1924, Dr. Wilson Popenoe saw the mangosteen growing at one site in Ecuador. In 1939, 15,000 seeds were distributed by the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens to many areas of tropical America. It is probable that only a relatively few seedlings survived. It is known that many die during the first year. Dr. Victor Patiño has observed flourishing mangosteen trees at the site of an ancient mining settlement in Mariquita, Colombia, in the Magdalena Valley and the fruits are sold on local markets. Dierberger Agricola Ltda., of Sao Paulo, included the mangosteen in their nursery catalog in 1949.

Despite early trials in Hawaii, the tree has not be converted into well acclimatized and is still rare in those islands. Neither has it been thriving in California. It encounters very unfavorable soil and climate in Florida. Some plants have been grown for a time in containers in greenhouses. One tree in a very protected coastal location and special soil lived to yield a single fruit and then succumbed to winter cold.

Despite the oft-repeated Ancient World enthusiasm for this fruit, it is not always viewed as worth the vex to yield. In Jamaica, it is regarded as nice but overrated; not comparable to a excellent field-ripe pineapple or a choice mango.

Varieties

According to Corner, the fruit from seedling trees is honestly uniform; only one distinct variation is known and that is in the Sulu Islands. The fruit is larger, the rind thicker than normal, and the flesh more acid; the flavor more pronounced. In North Borneo, a seemingly wild form has only 4 carpels, each containing a fully-developed seed, and this is doubtless not unique.

Climate

The mangosteen is ultra-tropical. It cannot tolerate temperatures below 40º F (4.44º C), nor above 100º F (37.78º C). Nursery seedlings are killed at 45º F (7.22º C).

It is limited in Malaya to elevations below 1,500 ft (450 m). In Madras it grows from 250 to 5,000 ft (76-1,500 m) above sea-level. Attempts to establish it north of 200 latitude have all failed.

It ordinarily requires high atmospheric humidity and an annual rainfall of at least 50 in (127 cm), and no long periods of drought. In Dominica, mangosteens growing in an area having 80 in (200 cm) of rain yearly required special care, but those in another locality with 105 in (255 cm) and soil with better moisture- holding capacity, flourished.

Soil

The tree is not adapted to limestone and does best in deep, rich organic soil, especially sandy loam or laterite. In India, the most productive specimens are on clay containing much coarse material and a small silt. Sandy alluvial soils are unsuitable and sand low in humus contributes to low yields. The tree needs excellent drainage and the water table ought to be about 6 ft (1.8 m) below ground level. But, in the Canal Zone, productive mangosteen groves have been established where it is too wet for other fruit trees–in swamps requiring drainage ditches between rows and in situations where the roots were bathed with flowing water most of the year, in spite of the fact that standing water in nursery beds will kill seedlings. The mangosteen must be privileged from strong winds and salt spray, as well as saline soil or water.

Propagation

Technically, the so-called "seeds" are not right seeds but adventitious embryos, or hypocotyl tubercles, inasmuch as there has been no sexual fertilization. When progression starts, a shoot emerges from one end of the seed and a root from the other end. But this root is fleeting-lived and is replaced by roots which develop at the base of the shoot. The process of reproduction being vegetative, there is naturally small variation in the resulting trees and their fruits. Some of the seeds are polyembryonic, producing more than one shoot. The individual nucellar embryos can be separated, if desired, before planting.

Inasmuch as the percentage of germination is directly related to the weight of the seed, only plump, fully developed seeds should be chosen for planting. Even these will lose viability in 5 days after removal from the fruit, though they are viable for 3 to 5 weeks in the fruit. Seeds packed in lightly dampened peat moss, sphagnum moss or coconut fiber in airtight containers have remained viable for 3 months. Only 22% germination has been realized in seeds packed in ground charcoal for 15 days. Soaking in water for 24 hours expedites and enhances the rate of germination. Generally, sprouting occurs in 20 to 22 days and is complete in 43 days.

Because of the long, delicate taproot and poor unencumbered root development, transplanting is notoriously hard. It must not be attempted after the plants reach 2 ft (60 cm). At that time the depth of the taproot may exceed that height. There is greater seedling survival if seeds are planted directly in the nursery row than if first grown in containers and then transplanted to the nursery. The nursery soil should be 3 ft (1 m) deep, at least. The childish plants take 2 years or more to reach a height of 12 in (30 cm), when they can be taken up with a deep ball of earth and set out. Fruiting may take place in 7 to 9 years from planting but usually not for 10 or even 20 years.

Conventional vegetative propagation of the mangosteen is hard. Various methods of grafting have failed. Cuttings and air-layers, with or without progression-promoting chemicals, usually fail to root or result in buckled, fleeting-lived plants. Inarching on different rootstocks has appeared promising at first but later incompatibility has been evident with all apart from G. xanthochymus Hook. f. (G tinctoria Dunn.) or G. lateriflora Bl., now frequently employed in the Philippines.

In Florida, approach-grafting has succeeded only by planting a seed of G. xanthochymus about 1 1/4 in (3 cm) from the base of a mangosteen seedling in a container and, when the stem of the G. xanthochymus seedling has be converted into 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, joining it onto the 3/16 to 1/4 in (5-6 mm) thick stem of the mangosteen at a point about 4 in (10 cm) above the soil. When the graft has healed, the G. xanthochymus seedling is beheaded. The mangosteen will make excellent progress having both root systems to grow on, while the G. xanthochymus rootstock will develop very small.

Culture

A spacing of 35 to 40 ft (10.7-12 m) is not compulsory. Planting is preferably done at the beginning of the rainy season. Pits 4 x 4 x 4 1/2 ft (1.2 x l.2 x l.3 m) are prepared at least 30 days in advance, enriched with organic topic and topsoil and left to weather. The childish tree is place in place very carefully so as not to injure the root and agreed a heavy watering. Partial shading with palm fronds or by other earnings should be maintained for 3 to 5 years. Indian growers give each tree regular feeding with well-rotted manure–100 to 200 lbs (45-90 kg)–and peanut meal–10 to 15 lbs (4.5-6.8 kg) whole, per year.

Some of the most fruitful mangosteen trees are growing on the banks of streams, lakes, ponds or canals where the roots are nearly constantly wet. But, dry weather just before blooming time and during flowering induces a excellent fruit-set. Where a moist planting site is not available, irrigation ditches should be dug to make it possible to maintain an adequate water supply and the trees are irrigated nearly daily during the dry season.

In Malaya and Ceylon, it is a common practice to spread a mulch of coconut husks or fronds to retain moisture. A 16-in (40-cm) mulch of grass restored trees that had begun dehydrating in Liberia. It has been suggested that small inner branches be pruned from ancient, unproductive trees to stimulate bearing. In Thailand, the tree is said to take 12 to 20 years to fruit. In Panama and Puerto Rico trees grown from large seed and agreed excellent culture have borne in six years.

Season and Harvesting

At low altitudes in Ceylon the fruit ripens from May to July; at higher elevations, in July and August or August and September. In India, there are 2 distinct fruiting seasons, one in the monsoon cycle (July-October) and another from April through June. Puerto Rican trees in full sun fruit in July and August; shaded trees, in November and December.

Cropping is irregular and the yield varies from tree to tree and from season to season. The first crop may be 200 to 300 fruits. Average yield of a full-grown tree is about 500 fruits. The yield steadily increases up to the 30th year of bearing when crops of 1,000 to 2,000 fruits may be obtained. In Madras, individual trees between the ages of 20 and 45 years have borne 2,000 to 3,000 fruits. Productivity increasingly declines thereafter, though the tree will still be fruiting at 100 years of age.

Ripeness is gauged by the full development of color and slight softening. Picking may be done when the fruits are slightly underripe but they must be fully mature (developed) or they will not ripen after picking. The fruits must be harvested by hand from ladders or by earnings of a cutting pole and not be allowable to fall.

Maintenance Quality

In dry, warm, closed storage, mangosteens can be held 20 to 25 days. Longer periods cause the outer skin to toughen and the rind to be converted into rubbery; later, the rind hardens and becomes hard to open and the flesh turns dry.

Ripe mangosteens keep well for 3 to 4 weeks in storage at 40º to 55º F (4.44º-12.78º C). Trials in India have shown that optimum conditions for cold storage are temperatures of 39º to 42º F (3.89º-5.56º C) and relative humidity of 85 to 90%, which maintain quality for 49 days. It is not compulsory that the fruits be wrapped in bandanna paper and packed 25-to-the-box in light wooden crates with excelsior padding. Fruits picked slightly green have been shipped from Burma to the United Kingdom at 50º to 55º F (10º-12.78º C). From 1927 to 1929, trial shipments were made from Java to Holland at 37.4º F (approximately 2.38º C) and the fruits kept in excellent condition for 24 days.

Mice and Diseases

Few mice have been reported. A leaf-eating caterpillar in India may perhaps be the same as that which attacks new shoots in the Philippines and which has been identified as Orgyra sp. of the tussock moth family, Lymantridae. A small ant, Myrnelachista ramulorum, in Puerto Rico, colonizes the tree, tunnels into the trunk and branches, and hurts the new progression. Mites sometimes despoil the fruits with small bites and scratches. Fully ripe fruits are attacked by monkeys, bats and rats in Asia.

In Puerto Rico, thread blight caused by the fungus, Pellicularia koleroga, is often seen on branchlets, plants and fruits of trees in shaded, humid areas. The fruits may be converted into coated with webbing and ruined. In Malaya, the fungus, Zignoella garcineae, gives rise to "canker"–tuberous growths on the branches, causing a fatal dying-back of plants, branches and eventually the entire tree. Breakdown in storage is caused by the fungi Diplodia gossypina, Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Gloeosporium sp., and Rhizopus nigricans.

A major physiological problem called "gamboge" is evidenced by the oozing of latex onto the outer surface of the fruits and on the branches during periods of heavy and continuous rains. It does not affect eating quality. Fruit-cracking may occur because of excessive absorption of moisture. In cracked fruits the flesh will be swollen and mushy. Bruising caused by the force of storms may be an valuable factor in both of these abnormalities. Fruits exposed to strong sun may also exude latex. Mangosteens produced in Honduras often have crystal-like "stones" in the flesh and they may render the fruit absolutely inedible.

Food Uses

To select the best table fruits, choose those with the highest number of stigma lobes at the apex, for these have the highest number of fleshy segments and in view of that the fewest seeds. The numbers always correspond. Mangosteens are usually eaten fresh as dessert. One need only hold the fruit with the stem-end downward, take a sharp knife and cut around the middle absolutely through the rind, and lift off the top half, which leaves the fleshy segments exposed in the colorful "cup"–the bottom half of the rind. The segments are lifted out by fork.

The fleshy segments are sometimes canned, but they are said to lose their delicate flavor in canning, especially if pasteurized for as much as 10 minutes. Tests have shown that it is best to use a 40% sirup and sterilize for only 5 minutes. The more acid fruits are best for preserving. To make jam, in Malaya, seedless segments are boiled with an equal amount of honey and a few cloves for 15 to 20 minutes and then place into glass jars. In the Philippines, a preserve is made by simply boiling the segments in brown honey, and the seeds may be included to enrich the flavor.

The seeds are sometimes eaten alone after boiling or roasting.

The rind is rich in pectin. After treatment with 6% sodium chloride to eliminate astringency, the rind is made into a purplish jelly.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Part*
Calories60-63
Moisture80.2-84.9 g
Protein0.50-0.60 g
Fat0.1-0.6 g
Whole Carbohydrates14.3-15.6 g
Whole Sugars16.42-16.82 g
(sucrose, glucose and fructose)
Fiber5.0-5.1 g
Ash0.2-0.23 g
Calcium0.01-8.0 mg
Phosphorus0.02-12.0 mg
Iron0.20-0.80 mg
Thiamine0.03 mg
Ascorbic Acid1.0-2.0 mg
*Minimum/maximum values from analyses made in the Philippines and Washington, D.C.

Phytin (an organic phosphorus compound) constitutes up to 0.68% on a dry-weight basis. The flesh amounts to 31% of the whole fruit.

Other Uses

Mangosteen twigs are used as chewsticks in Ghana. The fruit rind contains 7 to 14% catechin tannin and rosin, and is used for tanning leather in China. It also yields a black dye.

Wood: In Thailand, all non-bearing trees are felled, so the wood is available but usually only in small dimensions. It is dark-brown, heavy, nearly sinks in water, and is moderately durable. It has been used to make handles for spears, also rice pounders, and is employed in construction and cabinetwork.

Medicinal Uses: Dried fruits are shipped from Singapore to Calcutta and to China for medicinal use. The sliced and dried rind is minced and administered to overcome dysentery. Made into an ointment, it is applied on eczema and other skin disorders. The rind decoction is taken to relieve diarrhea and cystitis, gonorrhea and gleet and is applied externally as an astringent oil. A part of the rind is steeped in water overnight and the infusion agreed as a remedy for chronic diarrhea in adults and family. Filipinos use a decoction of the leaves and bark as a febrifuge and to treat thrush, diarrhea, dysentery and urinary disorders. In Malaya, an infusion of the leaves, combined with green banana and a small benzoin is applied to the wound of circumcision. A root decoction is taken to regulate menstruation. A bark extract called "amibiasine", has been marketed for the treatment of amoebic dysentery.

The rind of partially ripe fruits yields a polyhydroxy-xanthone derivative termed mangostin, also ß-mangostin. That of fully ripe fruits contains the xanthones, gartanin, 8-disoxygartanin, and normangostin. A derivative of mangostin, mangostin-e, 6-di-O-glucoside, is a central nervous logic depressant and causes a rise in blood pressure.

**** www.stuartxchange.org/Mangosteen.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_mangosteen
www.tropilab.com/gar-man.html
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18725264





Nice Healthy Foods photos

Posted by admin On March - 8 - 2012Comments Off

Some cool healthful foods images:

Healthful
healthy foods

Image by Trevor Blake
Healthful, Cincinnati Ohio USA, 4 November 2005.





Nice Healthy Foods photos

Posted by admin On March - 8 - 20123 COMMENTS

Check out these healthful foods images:

Camp FRESH 2011
healthy foods

Image by Christiana Care
Anthony Graves eats all his carrots.

But only a few months ago, the 13-year-ancient from New Castle filled up on junk food.

“I used to eat chips, cupcakes and soda,” he says. “Now I eat carrots, broccoli and tomatoes.”

Anthony is enrolled in Camp FRESH, fleeting for "fresh assets everyone should have," founded in 2007 by Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health, part of the Department of Family and Community Medicine. The nine-week program educates youth, ages 13-18, on nourishment and encourages them to eat healthful foods, while being aware that their food environment could make it hard to do so.

Camp FRESH also facility with the Delaware Center for Horticulture to educate youths on how people in urban communities can grow their own yield.

On a recent afternoon, Anthony and other campers questioned people in Rodney Square to take the 2011 Community Food Access Survey to gauge the eating habits of people in the city of Wilmington and assess their attitudes on accessibility to healthful foods. They questioned regulars what kinds of food they eat, where they buy groceries and how much they exercise.

Results from the first survey, administered in 2007, establish that a lack of access to nutritious foods was a serious obstacle to healthful eating habits. Since then, two new supermarkets have opened—ShopRite on Market Street in Wilmington and Food Lion on Governor Printz Boulevard in Edgemoor.

The latest results, to be compiled in the fall, will help to identify continuing barriers in urban communities to eating nutritious, low-stout foods and working out.

Richard Johnson of Bear, a school disciplinarian who took the survey, told Anthony that he has agreed up red meat and fried foods and eats lots of fruits and vegetables. He thinks Camp FRESH will have a lasting, positive impact on the youths.

“Working in schools, I see that obesity is a serious problem with kids,” he says. “Christiana Care is doing a very excellent business in teaching kids about nourishment.”

Indeed, Delawareans are being paid fatter, according to a recent study by the Trust for America’s Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The crash says 28 percent of adults in the First State are obese, certain as weighing at least 20 percent more than normal. Among family, 33.2 percent are overweight or obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control.

Campers come primarily from Wilmington, where corner supplies carry small fresh yield and supermarkets are not readily accessible.

“We tell kids that quick food might go excellent—but it is not excellent for you,” says Christopher C. Moore, healthful lifestyle coordinator at Christiana Care’s Center for Community Health. “We know that if agreed the right tools and information, the Camp FRESH youth have the ability to affect a lot of positive change.”

Over the years, more than 250 teens have participated in the program. Many say they are learning excellent habits that will last a lifetime.

“On the first day, I stopped drinking soda and started drinking water,” says Dkwan Brown, 14, of Wilmington. “Now I eat collard greens and salad. Whatever business that looks healthful, I will try.”

Instead of fried chicken, 13-year-ancient Aionna Williams of Wilmington questions her mother to make baked chicken. She and her mom stock up on veggies at ShopRite, Walmart and Target, as well as the Camp FRESH farmer’s market.

“The corner store is convenient but they don’t have healthful foods, only chips and stuff,” she says.

As for Anthony, he has lost 5 pounds and feels more energetic.

“I can tell that eating healthful foods is excellent for me,” he says. “That is why I want to get other people on board.”

#258 Salad!
healthy foods

Image by Like_the_Grand_Canyon
See, I also eat healthful food!

food_meals_sandwiches_eggs_salad_3
healthy foods

Image by time_anchor
5 January 2012
A nice healthful lunch.





Nice High Calorie photos

Posted by admin On March - 7 - 201225 COMMENTS

Some cool high calorie images:

Pomello
high calorie

Image by ecstaticist
PUMMELO, POMELLO, (SHADDOCK)

Pomello or pummelo, sometimes also called the shaddock, after an English sea captain who introduced them to the West Indies (Barbados).
Also French ‘pamplemousse,’ Spanish ‘pampelmus,’ Thai ‘som-o,’ and Japanese ‘butan’ or ‘zabon.’

Largest of the citrus family, the pummelo, native to Malaysia, is believed to be an ancestor of the grapefruit. They are a giant citrus fruit that can reach 10-11 inches in diameter, with a firm flesh and less juice than a grapefruit.

They were brought to the West Indies in the 17th century, and are well loved there as well as in Southeast Asia, especially in Thailand. They are cultivated in India, the Middle East, China, Jamaica, Florida, and California. Several new subtropical varieties have been developed in California.

As with other citrus fruits they are high in vitamin C and low in calories. The are also a excellent source of potassium. Generally they are yellow, round to pear shaped, 8 inches to as large as a basketball, with a thick layer of peel and pith. Flesh can range from lemon yellow to deep red, and they can be honey sweet or lemon tart and may be enormously seedy to seedless.

This is a full frame 3:2 of the center of a slice, backlit by a LED flashlight.

Progress-Back
high calorie

Image by Michael D. Dunn
Mikey has been being paid his eat on and his swoll on. On April 27th I weighed for myself at 157 lbs. Today I weighed in at 167. 10 lbs in 24 days. Not terrible. I am well ahead of schedule but the heat has started to settle in. Gotta keep that calorie intake high.

Next week I am switching up workouts, working more on core strength, legs and pull ups. Fascinating fact, I’ve had only 3 Pepsi’s in the past month. Water (with drink mixes) and Gatorade has been my drinks of choice.

A few of you have questioned if there are things you can send. Seeing that I need calories and protein in between meals here is what I recommend:

Almonds (like the Wasabi and the Jalapeno ones)
Peanuts (a mix is cool, mmmm cashews)
Granola and protein bars (be mindful that the temps have shot over 100)
Just about whatever business high in protein.

Cards and pictures to hang up at my desk.

Thankfulness to those that have sent packages. I greatly appreciate it.

See y’all on Towel Day (that would be the 25th, peace to DNA)

Mikey

Nov 13, 2010
high calorie

Image by kcnewbz
My calorie intake for the day was doubtless pretty high.







Get AutoBlogged